द्रापे अन्धसस्पते दरिद्रन्नीललोहित ।
एषां पुरुषाणामेषां पशूनां माभेर्मारो मो एषां किञ्च नाममत् ।
द्रापे- O producer of disgusting condition, अन्धसः- of food, पते- master (giver of food), दरिद्रत्- O poor one (possessing nothing), Unattached, नीललोहित- Possessing body of half black and half red, एषां- these (of mine), पुरुषाणां- to humans like son, grandson etc., एषां- these (of mine), पशूनां- of animals like cows, sheep etc., माभेः- do not cause fear. एषां- Of these, किञ्चन- anyone, मारः- not be destroyed. मो आममत्- nor suffer from disease.
Having worshipped Sri Parameswara from the second to ninth Anuvakam, prayer is offered in this Anuvakam.
The four terms in the first half of this mantra are terms of address of Sri Parameswara. As he bestows disgusting conditions like sufferings of hell, many miseries like poverty etc. on people in accordance with their sins, he is addressed as द्रापिः here. As he also provides food and protects the world, he is called अन्धसस्पते. Though he thus showers grace as well as punishment, he does not have any special attachment or hatred to anyone and this is indicated by the address दरिद्रत्. The address नीललोहित can be interpreted in two ways- black in neck and red in rest of the body, or, Ardhanariswara with Devi’s part in black and Easwara’s part in red.
In the latter half of the mantra, prayer is offered for freedom from fear and growth with good health of humans and animals dependent on oneself. The addresses in the first half are in accord with this prayer. One can only beg for fearlessness and health from one who produces disgusting conditions like fear, disease etc. as a result of sins and one who bestows food and protects us. As he is accompanied by Uma, whose very form is compassion, he will certainly grant fearlessness, health etc.
Rishi for this mantra is Pulastya; Chandas is Aastarapankti; Devata is Bhairavarudra.
“आगुल्फासितकञ्चुको डमरुकाश्लिष्टो लसत्कुण्डली
शूली कुण्डलितश्रवाः सतिलको मञ्जुक्वणन्नूपुरः ।
देवो भैरववेषभूषिततनुर्ध्येयो मृडानीपतिः ॥“
“One should meditate on Deva, consort of Parvati, with the appearance of Bhairava, wearing black shirt extending down to ankle, holding damaruka in one hand, Trisula in the other hand, wearing beautiful ear-rings, tilaka mark on the forehead, sweet-sounding anklets on the feet, pure and beautiful teeth and white face.”
Chanting of this mantra ten thousand times while duly observing fast will help in attaining the full power of the mantra. Benefits of chanting this mantra include freedom from fear of all creatures, abatement of all fevers, attainment of wealth and darshan of Lord Bhairava.
या ते रुद्र शिवा तनूः शिवा विश्वाहभेषजी ।
शिवा रुद्रस्य भेषजी तया नो मृड जीवसे ॥
रुद्र- O Parameswara, विश्वाहभेषजी - being medicine for removal of disease, poverty etc. at all times, शिवा- called ‘Sivaa’, शिवा- very auspicious, या- that, ते- your, तनूः- body, रुद्रस्य- of you, who is doctor curing the disease of samsara, भेषजी- being medicine, शिवा- the auspicious (body), तया- with that also, नः- us, जीवसे- for living, मृड- make comfortable.
Parameswara has two forms- ‘Sivaa’ and ‘Ghora’. Of these, ‘Sivaa’ can be considered as two- one, which removes all diseases and miseries like poverty of all people at all times and bestows comforts; other, which bestows Atmagnana, destroys the misery of samsara like birth, death etc. and grants the bliss of Moksha. The term ‘Visvaahabheshaji’ refers to the first form and ‘Rudrasyabheshaji’, the second. The prayer here is for grant of comfortable life by both these forms.
Rishi and Devata for this mantra are Sri Parameswara of the form of Subrahmania; Chandas is Anushtup.
“द्रुतचामीकरप्रख्यं शक्तिपाणिं षडाननम् ।
मयूरवाहनारूढं स्कन्दरूपं शिवं स्मरेत् ॥“
“One should meditate on Parameswara of the form of Subrahmania, brilliant like molten gold, holding the weapon ‘Sakti’ (Vel) in the hand and seated on the peacock mount.”
Full power of this mantra will be realized by doing Pranayama 108 times and chanting this mantra 5000 times. Chanting this mantra will bestow good progeny, nourishment, health and wealth.
इमाँ रुद्राय तवसे कपर्दिने क्षयद्वीराय प्रभरामहे मतिम् ।
यथा नः शमसद्विपदे चतुष्पदे विश्वं पुष्टं ग्रामे अस्मिन्ननातुरम् ॥
तवसे- Strong, कपर्दिने- with matted locks, क्षयद्वीराय- to one whose enemies are destroyed by mere sight, रुद्राय- to Parameswara, who dispels the misery of samsara, इमां मतिं- mental dhyanam, pooja etc., प्रभरामहे- we specially perform. यथा- Following the method by which, नः- to our, द्विपदे- creatures with two legs, चतुष्पदे- animals with four legs, शं- comfort, असत्- will come by, अस्मिन् ग्रामे- in this village of ours, विश्वं- all animals, पुष्टं- well nourished (with no deficiencies), अनातुरम्- free from diseases, असत्- will be (we perform dhyanam, pooja that way).
It is stated here that we adore Sri Parameswara mentally so that in addition to the humans and animals of one’s own, all animals in the village will be happy. The following sloka from Purana makes it clear that if one person in the village or town chants Rudram, all the residents there will be free from disease, poverty and trouble from thieves.
“रुद्राध्यायी वसेद्यत्र ग्रामे वा नगरेपि वा ।
व्याधिदुर्भिक्षचोरादिबाधा तत्र न जायते ॥“
The four adjectives- ‘Rudraya’, ‘Tavase’ etc. convey that Sri Parameswara is capable of granting all comforts to all creatures.
रुद्राय- Can there be any difficulty for one who relieves the person from the misery of samsara, viz. birth and death, in removing small troubles occurring in life!
तवसे- It has been explained in the commentaries of Bhattabhaskara and Sayana that he has the strength required for the above action. In the commentary of Abhinavasankara, the term is considered as ‘तपसे’ meaning – one possessed of the power of Knowledge.
कपर्दिने- This means that he accomplishes tasks not capable of being performed by anyone else.
कं-गङ्गाजलं-पर्दयति- पालयतीति- कपर्दः- जटाजूटः- सः अस्यास्तीति- कपर्दी. It was Parameswara alone who withstood and held in his matted locks the torrential flow of Ganga, falling from the sky and incapable of being stopped by anyone else.
क्षयद्वीराय- This conveys that he possesses unparalleled valour.
It is but appropriate to pray to Parameswara, who has such great powers, for the well being of all.
मृडानो रुद्रोत नो मयस्कृधि क्षयद्वीराय नमसा विधेम ते ।
यच्छं च योश्च मनुरायजे पिता तदश्याम तव रुद्र प्रणीतौ ॥
रुद्र- O Parameswara, नः- us, मृड- grant desires and make comfortable. उत- Further, नः- to us, मयः- bliss of Moksha, कृधि- grant. क्षयद्वीराय- To the destroyer of our virulent sins, ते- to you, नमसा विधेम- we prostrate and worship. पिता- Our father-like, मनुः- Manu (the first human created by Brahma), यत् शं च- the material comforts, योश्च- and bliss of Moksha untouched by sorrow, तव प्रणीतौ- in your grace, आयजे- earned, तत्- all that, रुद्र- O Parameswara, अश्याम- (by your grace) we also attain.
योः- यूयते- दुःखेन विना भूयते इति योः दुह्खासंभिन्नं सुखं- मोक्ष इत्यर्थः.
Parameswara! Grant us cattle, sons, wealth, food etc. and make us live comfortably in this world. Further, please also grant us the bliss of Moksha. Please do not think as to how to grant Moksha to these sinners. We prostrate and worship you. However terrible our sins may be, will they not be dispelled after we have worshipped you? ‘Kshyadviraya’ was interpreted earlier as the destroyer of enemies by mere sight. Or, we may also interpret that all the virulent sins are destroyed, once we worship him. That through Parameswara’s grace, all happiness of this world as well as the next is attained is not something new, but borne by tradition. It is prayed that the happiness of this world and the next, attained through Parameswara’s grace by Manu, the father of all humans and teacher of dharmas of varnas and asramas to humans, should also be granted to us.
The third and fourth Riks are one mantra only; Rishi is Markandeya; Chandas is Jagati; Devata is Rudra.
“दिव्यसिम्हासनासीनं स्तूयमानं महर्षिभिः ।
प्रसन्नवदनं ध्यायेत् सोमं सोमार्धशेखरम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Parameswara, seated on divine throne, worshipped by Maharishis, with jubilant face, wearing half-moon on the head and accompanied by Parvati.”
The main benefit of this mantra is the peace of cattle, birds etc.
मानो महान्तमुतमानो अर्भकं मान उक्षन्तमुत मा न उक्षितम् ।
मानोवधीः पितरं मोत मातरं प्रिया मानस्तनुवो रुद्र रीरिषः ॥
रुद्र- O Parameswara, नः- our, महान्तं- old persons, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble through disease etc. उत- Further, नः- our, अर्भकं- children, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble. नः- our, उक्षन्तं- youth, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble. उत- Further, नः- our, उक्षितं- foetus in womb, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble. नः- our, पितरं- father, माऽवधीः- do not catch. उत- Further, मातरं- mother, माऽवधीः- do not catch. नः- Our, प्रियाः- loving, तनुवः- bodies, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble.
In addition to praying for the welfare of old persons, children, youth, foetus in womb, father and mother of one’s own, the prayer extends to other relatives of people known to the worshipper; hence the plural ‘नः’ has been used. In this mantra a single usage of ‘मा नः’ would have conveyed the prayer for not troubling all; but owing to the great love of people known to the worshipper, ‘मा नः’ has been used with all terms like ‘महान्तं, अर्भकं’ etc.
Rishi for this mantra is Bhrigu; Chandas is Jagati; Devata is Sri Rudra in the form of Nandiswara.
“बालेन्दुमकुटं देवं तरुणादित्यविग्रहम् ।
ध्यायेन्नन्दीश्वराकारं गणेश्वरसमावृतम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Parameswara in the form of Nandikeswara, wearing the crescent on the head, emitting brilliance like Sun and surrounded by Ganadhipatis.”
Chanting this mantra will ensure peace for the relatives of the worshipper.
मानस्तोके तनये मान आयुषि मानो गोषु मानो अश्वेषु रीरिषः ।
वीरान्मानो रुद्र भामितो वधीर्हविष्मन्तो नमसा विधेम ते ॥
रुद्र- O Parameswara, भामितः- you who are angry with us (for not having done things meant to be done), नः- our, तोके- children, तनये- sons, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble. नः- Our, आयुषि- lifespan, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble. नः- Our, गोषु- cows, नः अश्वेषु- and our horses, (मा रीरिषः). नः- Our, वीरान्- servants, मावधीः- do not trouble. हविष्मन्तः- With Havis like Charu, Purodasam etc., or things offered with devotion, ते- to you, नमसा- (we) prostrate, विधेम- and serve.
O Parameswara! Whatever may be the sins we have committed, please accept Charu, Purodasam and other offerings, prostrations and other services submitted by us with devotion, forgive us and do not trouble creatures associated with us.
Rishi and Devata for this mantra are Sri Parameswara himself; Chandas is Jagati.
“दधानमेकादशधा विभज्य देहं विशुद्धस्फटिकप्रकाशम् ।
तेजोमयं शूलिनमिन्दुमौलिं विचिन्तयेदत्र सदैव रुद्रम् ॥“
“One should meditate always on Rudra, who has divided his form in eleven ways, shining like pure crystal, holding the brilliant Trisula and wearing Chandra on the head.”
Benefits of this mantra are stated as increase of lifespan and kingdom, good rains, victory in dealings and gambling, gold, relief from great sins, attraction of all people etc.
आरात्ते गोघ्न उत पूरुषघ्ने क्षयद्वीराय सुम्नमस्मे ते अस्तु ।
रक्षा च नो अधि च देव ब्रूह्यथा च नः शर्म यच्छ द्विबर्हाः ॥
गोघ्ने- Destroyer of cows (of sinners), उत- further, पूरुषघ्ने- destroyer of children, grandchildren etc., क्षयद्वीराय- destroyer of all warriors, ते- your, सुम्नं- peaceful form, अस्मे- to us, आरात्- near, अस्तु- let be. च- Further, नः- us, रक्ष- protect. च- Further, देव- O Parameswara, अधिब्रूहि- speak in our favour. अथा च- Further, द्विबर्हाः- Bestower of increased happiness in this and next world, नः- to us, शर्म- material and Moksha happiness, यच्छ- grant.
It has been stated earlier that Parameswara has two forms- terrible and peaceful. He will give darshan with terrible form to sinners. He will trouble their cattle, children and grandchildren. For Parameswara, who destroys all warriors of the world at the final time, it is not a difficult act to trouble sinners and their associates. So the prayer goes: O Parameswara, your form of peace should be near us; let the terrible form be at a long distance. Further please protect us with your peaceful form near at hand. If Devas and others ask you how you can protect sinners like us, you should speak in our favour. Not only that, you should grant all happiness here as well as the bliss of Moksha.
In this mantra the fourth grammatical case in the three words ‘गोघ्ने, पूरुषघ्ने, क्षयद्वीराय’ convey the meaning of the sixth case. These three words are adjectives for ते.
Rishi for this mantra is Atri; Chandas is Trishtup; Devata is Sambhu.
“कुर्वाणं सन्निधौ देव्या देवमानन्दताण्डवम् ।
हुताशनधरं ध्यायेत्तप्तकाञ्चनसन्निभम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Parameswara, dancing Tandava of Bliss in the presence of Devi, holding Agni in hand and shining like molten gold.”
By chanting this mantra, one will attain long life and wealth.
स्तुहि श्रुतं गर्तसदं युवानं मृगं न भीममुपहत्नुमुग्रम् ।
मृडा जरित्रे रुद्रस्तवानो अन्यन्ते अस्मन्निवपन्तु सेनाः ॥
(O Speech or Indwelling Soul!) श्रुतं- Famous as ‘Parameswara’, गर्तसदं- dwelling in our heart-cave, युवानं- always youthful and handsome, उपहत्नुं- destroyer of the wicked, मृगं न- like lion, भीमं- terrible, उग्रं- fierce (unconquerable), स्तुहि- praise. रुद्र- O Parameswara, स्तवानः- Praised (you), जरित्र- (to us) being in destructible bodies, मृड- give comfort. सेनाः- Your armies (which spoil our comfort), अस्मत् अन्यं- (other than us) our enemies or sins, निवपन्तु- let destroy.
This mantra is directed at the sense organ of speech or the indwelling soul. One can praise only one who is famous everywhere. The term ‘Srutam’ indicates that Parameswara is very reputed in all Vedas and worlds as ‘Easwara’. There need be no doubt as to whether our praise will ever reach the ears of such a famous God, because he is ‘Gartasada:’, dweller of our heart-cave. He is not worshipped only because he is very great, but he is also ever youthful with bewitching form, as noted by the term ‘yuvanam’. ‘Upahatnum’ conveys that Sri Parameswara would certainly trouble those who violate his orders, not chanting his praise as prescribed and not following all proper dharmas. ‘Mrigam na bhimam’ conveys that while harming evil persons, he is very terrible like a lion breaking the head of an elephant. Here ‘na’ conveys the meaning of a simile like ‘iva’. In order to dispel the doubt as to whether there could be someone stronger than Parameswara like ‘sarabha’ subduing the lion, the term ‘ugram’ has been used. From the authority of passages like ‘नवा ओजीयो रुद्र त्वदस्ति’, ‘तमीश्वराणां परमं महेश्वरम्’ etc., it is clear that there is none stronger than that Lord of lords.
Having thus stated the troubles for those who do not pray to Parameswara, the Rishi explains the benefits of prayer through ‘मृडाजरित्रे’ etc. Pleased with our prayer, please grant us healthy and strong bodies, though destructible and finally the bliss of Moksha. May your armies, opposed to our comforts, destroy the sins, which are our enemies.
Rishi for this mantra is Vyaghra; Chandas is Trishtup; Devata is Sri Rudra.
“उद्यद्भास्करकोटिप्रकाशमाकाशगं भीमम् ।
भीतिघ्नमभयवरदं ध्यायेत् रुद्रं सुरौघनुतम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Sri Rudra, effulgent like a crore of Suns at dawn in the sky, very terrible, destroying the fear of those who surrender, with hands in Abhaya and Varada pose and adored by Devas.”
The main benefit of this mantra is destruction of enemies.
परिणो रुद्रस्य हेतिर्वृणक्तु परित्वेषस्य दुर्मतिरघायोः ।
अवस्थिरा मघवद्भ्यस्तनुष्व मीढ्वस्तोकाय तनयाय मृडय ॥
रुद्रस्य- Of Parameswara, हेतिः- weapon, नः- from us, परिवृणक्तु- leave alone (let them not attack us at any time). अघायोः- Desirous of sin (as cause of anger), परि- on all four sides, त्वेषस्य- of Rudra, bubbling with anger, दुर्मतिः- evil thought (of troubling others) (may leave us). मीढ्वः- O Parameswara, granter of all desires of devotees, (your weapons and thoughts) स्थिरा- faultless (will never become infructuous). मघवद्भ्यः- With us, performing prayers and prostrations, अवतनुष्व- withdraw that weapon. तोकाय- To (generally our) children, तनयाय- to (particularly our) sons, मृडय- grant comfort.
Parameswara gets angry at the sins committed by people. Hence the thought of harming them arises. Place, time, person etc., which can cause many miseries, become Parameswara’s weapons. They harm the people, causing them pain; this is the order of things. In this mantra, it is prayed that starting from sin, till experience of pain, nothing should occur. Even if we had sinned earlier, be pleased with our prayers, prostrations etc. and withdraw your weapons from us. Please also alter the thought of harming us. Further, please grant comfort to our children in general and sons in particular.
Rishi and Devata for this mantra is Parameswara himself; Chandas is Trishtup.
“गजचर्मावृततनुं स्फुरत्प्रहरणोज्वलम् ।
सर्वपापहरं ध्यायेद्देवं कुन्जरभेदिनम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Parameswara, wearing elephant-skin, holding shining weapons, destroyer of all sins and exterminator of Gajasura.”
The main benefits of this mantra include getting good sons etc.
मीढुष्टम शिवतम शिवो नः सुमना भव ।
परमे वृक्ष आयुधं निधाय कृत्तिं वसान आचर पिनाकं बिभ्रदागहि ॥
मीढुष्टम- Giver of all desired objects (to worshippers), शिवतम- Bestower of auspiciosness, नः- to us, शिवः- granter of auspicious things, सुमनाः- with favourable disposition, भव- be. परमे- Superior, वृक्षे- in the banyan tree (in Kailasa), आयुधं- your terrible weapon, निधाय- putting aside, कृत्तिं- tiger-skin, वसानः- wearing, आचर- please come to us. पिनाकं- Bow alone, बिभ्रत्- wearing as decoration (please come to us).
O Parameswara, the bestower of all desired objects to worshippers! Please be granter of auspiciousness, well disposed and kind to us. As an indication of this, please leave all your terrible weapons in the superior banyan tree in Kailasa out of our sight and come before us, wearing tiger-skin and holding your bow in hand as a decoration.
It has been described that Sri Parameswara is seated in a banyan tree in Kailasa, 100 yojanas tall and 175 yojanas wide (one yojana is roughly 13 kilometres) and that banyan tree is the refuge of those anxious to get Moksha. Here it is prayed that the weapons be left in that tree. As Parameswara’s form with his bow ‘Pinakam’ and wearing tiger-skin is praised as bestower of many merits in Sruti passages like ‘Pinakahasta: Krittivasa:’, ‘Praneswara: Krittivasa: Pinaki’ etc., it is prayed here that he should appear in that form.
Parameswara wears tiger-skin not because of non-availability of other good clothing. Is it appropriate that for Parameswara, the bestower of all wealth on all including Brahma and Indra, there is no clothing for his own wear? Why does he wear tiger-skin then? It is because Parameswara enjoys the bliss of Self alone and is indifferent to pleasures of objects. Hence he sets aside the superior clothing worn by those desirous of pleasures of objects and wears tiger-skin. Parameswara likes tiger-skin very much. That is why it is prayed here that he should appear before us, wearing tiger-skin.
Rishi for this mantra is Vairaja; Chandas is Trishtup; Devata is Sambhu.
“मङ्गलायतनं देवं युवानमतिसुन्दरम् ।
ध्यायेद्वनचराकारमागच्छन्तं पिनाकिनम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Sri Parameswara, of very handsome form, with appearance of a hunter, holding the bow ‘Pinakam’ in hand, the abode of all auspiciousness and youthful.”
Chanting this mantra will dispel fear of king, trouble from thieves and fear of life.
विकिरिद विलोहित नमस्ते अस्तु भगवः ।
यास्ते सहस्रँ हेतयोन्यमस्मन्निवपन्तु ताः ॥
विकिरिद- Destroyer of miseries like sin, disease, poverty etc., विलोहित- Of white complexion, भगवः- Possessor of six glories like wealth etc., ते- to you, नमः अस्तु- may prostration be. ते- Your, याः- which, सहस्रं हेतयः- thousands of weapons, ताः- those, अस्मत् अन्यं- our enemy (sin), निवपन्तु- may destroy.
The term ‘Vilohita’ has two meanings- of white complexion and of red complexion. As Parameswara is described to be of white complexion at some times and red at other times, both meanings apply here. As sin would lead to many miseries like poverty, disease etc., it is prayed that Parameswara should destroy the sins with his weapons.
Rishi of this mantra is Pulastya; Chandas is Trishtup; Devata is Sambhu.
“प्रसन्नवदनं शान्तं चरितोद्वाहमण्डनम् ।
अम्बया सहितं ध्यायेत्सुरसङ्घैरभिष्टुतम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Sri Parameswara, who has jubilant face, presenting the appearance of celebrating marriage, worshipped by hordes of Devas and of peaceful form.”
Benefits of chant of this mantra are stated to be unity among people, victory over enemies, relief from fear etc.
सहस्राणि सहस्रधा बाहुवोस्तव हेतयः ।
तासामीशानो भगवः पराचीना मुखाकृधि ॥
भगव:- Bhagavan! तव- Your, बाहुवोः- in both hands, सहस्राणि- thousands of, हेतयः- weapons, सहस्रधा- are in many shapes. ईशानः- All-powerful you, तासां- of those weapons, मुखा- ends, पराचीना- not facing us, but turned away from us, कृधि- please do.
There are thousands of weapons in Parameswara’s hands. Each weapon has many characteristics. To indicate this, two terms ‘Sahasrani’ and ‘Sahasradha’ have been used. It is prayed that all those weapons be made to face away from us.
Rishi of this mantra is Narada; Devata is Sri Rudra; Chandas is Anushtup.
“सर्वपापहरं देवं सर्वाभरणभूषितम् ।
सर्वायुधधरं ध्यायेत्सर्वलोकमहेश्वरम् ॥“
“One should meditate on the Deva, the Lord of all worlds, the destroyer of all sins, decorated with all ornaments, holding all weapons.”
Troubles arising unexpectedly with no obvious cause will go away by chanting this mantra.
सहस्राणि सहस्रशो ये रुद्रा अधिभूम्याम् ।
तेषाँ सहस्रयोजनेऽवधन्वानि तन्मसि ॥
सहस्राणि- Thousands of, ये रुद्राः- which Rudras, सहस्रशः- in thousands, भूम्यां अधि- (are) lords of earth, तेषां- their, धन्वानि- bows, सहस्रयोजने- at a long distance of a thousand yojanas, अवतन्मसि- we leave the bow-strings loosened.
Sri Parameswara was beseeched in the tenth Anuvakam. In this eleventh Anuvakam, Rudraganas, who are his parts, are worshipped. Thousands of Rudraganas, in groups of thousands, have been detailed by Parameswara in many parts of the world to either punish or reward creatures there in accordance with their karmas. It has been stated in detail in Veda, Mahabharata, Sivapurana and other texts that they are very great. This Anuvakam has as its sole purpose praying to those Rudras.
There are totally 13 mantras here. In this first mantra Rudraganas, who are the lords of the earth are mentioned. Their bows should be left at a distance of a thousand yojanas from where we are. As there could still be fear for us if those bows are strung, it is prayed here that the strings in the bows should be left loose.
अस्मिन्महत्यर्णवेन्तरिक्षे भवा अधि ।
अस्मिन्- In this, महति- large, अर्णवे- ocean, अन्तरिक्षे- in the sky, अधि- as lords on top, भवाः- which Rudras are there, तेषाँ सहस्रयोजनेऽवधन्वानि तन्मसि- we leave their bows at a distance of a thousand yojanas.
From this mantra upto the ninth mantra, the passage ‘तेषाँ सहस्रयोजनेऽवधन्वानि तन्मसि’ should be added to each of them. In order to indicate that this should be so added, this passage has been repeated in the tenth mantra. Ocean and sky are beyond measure. Similarly the greatness of the lords of these expanses is also immeasurable.
नीलग्रीवाः शितिकण्ठाः शर्वा अधः क्षमाचराः ।
नीलग्रीवाः- With black necks (after consuming Kalakuta poison), शितिकण्ठाः- with white necks (before taking the poison), शर्वाः- which Rudras, अधः क्षमाचराः- move about below the earth as lords, (we leave their bows at a distance of a thousand yojanas.)
नीलग्रीवाः शितिकण्ठा दिवँ रुद्रा उपश्रिताः ।
दिवं उपश्रिताः- Being in Swarga as lords, नीलग्रीवाः शितिकण्ठाः रुद्राः- Rudras with black and white necks (we leave their bows at a distance of a thousand yojanas.)
Rudraganas with abodes in many places have ‘Sarupyam’ (same form) as Rudra; hence their forms are described same as Rudra.
The four mantras from सहस्राणि सहस्रशः upto this are together one mantra. Rishi is Durvasa; Chandas is Anushtup; Devata is Rudra.
“दंष्ट्राकरालवदनं ज्वलज्ज्वलनमूर्धजम् ।
बिभ्राणं त्रिशिखं दीपं ध्यायेत्भुजगभूषणम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Parameswara, with face marked by terrible teeth, tresses like burning fire, holding lamp with three flames and wearing serpents as ornaments.”
Benefit of chanting this mantra is destruction of enemies.
ये वृक्षेषु सस्पिञ्जरा नीलग्रीवा विलोहिताः ।
वृक्षेषु- In trees, सस्पिञ्जराः- coloured like tender grass, नीलग्रीवाः- having black necks, विलोहिताः- of deep red colour, ये- which Rudras (we leave their bows at a distance of a thousand yojanas.)
Like on earth, there are Rudras of different colours, living in trees as their lords. This mantra refers to them.
ये भूतानामधिपतयो विशिखासः कपर्दिनः ।
भूतानां- Of Bhutaganas like Balagraham, अधिपतयः- lords, विशिखासः- with no hair on head, कपर्दिनः- with matted tresses, ये- which Rudras (we leave their bows at a distance of a thousand yojanas.)
Some of the Rudras, who are lords of Bhutaganas, ae bald headed and some have matted tresses.
ये अन्नेषु विविद्ध्यन्ति पात्रेषु पिबतो जनान् ।
अन्नेषु- In foods being consumed, ये- which Rudras (abide secretly), जनान्- people, विविद्ध्यन्ति- trouble, पात्रेषु- (and) in milk etc. being drunk, or in vessels for drinking (where Rudras abide secretly), पिबतः- drinking, जनान्- people (trouble). (we leave their bows at a distance of a thousand yojanas.)
The three Riks from ये वृक्षेषु upto this are together one mantra. Rishi, Chandas etc. are same as for the previous mantra.
ये पथां पथिरक्षय ऐलबृदा यव्युधः ।
पथां- For all paths- mundane as well as Vedic, पथिरक्षयः- protectors, ऐलबृदः- nurturers by giving food, यव्युधः- destroyers of sinners and protectors of noble path, ये- which Rudras (we leave their bows at a distance of a thousand yojanas.)
Protecting mundane and Vedic paths consists in enabling good people to engage in them and providing food etc. as their rewards and preventing sinners from going to those paths. Here the term पथिरक्षयः indicates protectors of paths. In order to convey the special import that they are the protectors of all the paths in the world, the term पथां has been added. In the passages "वसूयवो वसुपते वसूनाम्" "गवामसि गोपतिरेक इन्द्र" "निधीनां त्वा निधिपतिँ हवामहे" etc., double usage like the above can be noted for conveying broad import.
ऐलबृदः- इराशब्दः- अन्नवाची. इराणां समूहः- ऐरं, ऐरमेव ऐलं, तत् बिभ्रतीति ऐलभृतः, त एव ऐलबृदाः- भकारस्य बकारः, तकारस्य दत्वं, अकारस्य दीर्घश्च छान्दसः, - अन्नदातारः इत्यर्थः.
ऐरभृतः has undergone many changes and is seen as ऐलबृदाः. The term यव्युधः also indicates forms of peace.
ये तीर्थानि प्रचरन्ति सृकावन्तो निषङ्गिणः ।
सृकावन्तः- Holders of sharp weapons called ‘Sruka’, निषङ्गिणः- holders of swords, ये- which Rudras, तीर्थानि- in waters like Ganga, प्रचरन्ति- move about (we leave their bows at a distance of a thousand yojanas.)
Armed Rudraganas move about on banks of rivers in order to bestow the benefits of Tirtha on some and deny the benefits to others. This mantra refers to them.
Riks 8 and 9 together constitute one mantra. Rishi is Devala; Chandas is Anushtup; Devata is Rudra.
Dhyanam is same as in Mantra 4 above. Chanting this mantra will bestow the benefit of good son.
य एतावन्तश्च भूयाँसश्च दिशो रुद्रा वितस्थिरे ।
तेषाँ सहस्रयोजनेऽवधन्वानि तन्मसि ॥
एतावन्तः- All Rudras mentioned from ‘Sahasrani Sahasrasa: uptil now, भूयाँसश्च- more numerous and countless than them, ये रुद्राः- which Rudras, दिशो वितस्थिरे- pervade in all directions, तेषाँ सहस्रयोजनेऽवधन्वानि तन्मसि - we leave their bows at a distance of a thousand yojanas.
Rishi, Chandas etc. for this mantra are same as for the previos mantra.
नमो रुद्रेभ्यो ये पृथिव्यां येऽन्तरिक्षे ये दिवि येषामन्नं वातो वर्षमिषवस्तेभ्यो दश प्राचीर्दश दक्षिणा दश प्रतीचीर्दशोदीचीर्दशोर्ध्वास्तेभ्यो नमस्तेनो मृडयन्तु ते यं द्विष्मो यश्च नो द्वेष्टि तं वो जम्भे दधामि ॥
This must be split into three mantras:
1. नमो रुद्रेभ्यो ये पृथिव्यां येषामन्नमिषवस्तेभ्यो दशप्राचीर्दश .....दधामि ।
2. नमो रुद्रेभ्यो येऽन्तरिक्षे येषां वात इषवस्तेभ्यो दश प्राचीः..... दधामि ।
3. नमो रुद्रेभ्यो ये दिवि येषां वर्षमिषवस्तेभ्यो दश प्राचीः...... दधामि ।
Meaning of first mantra: ये- Which Rudras, पृथिव्यां- (are) in earth, येषां- for whom, अन्नं- the food we eat, इषवः- is means of torture like arrows, तेभ्यः रुद्रेभ्यः- to those Rudras, दश- all ten fingers, प्राचीः- east faced, दश दक्षिणाः- all ten fingers south faced, दश प्रतीचीः- all ten fingers west faced, दशोदीचीः- all ten fingers north faced, दश ऊर्ध्वाः- all ten fingers upwards (render). While folding hands and facing a direction, all ten fingers will face that particular direction. Hence this means that I show my respects facing those directions. This conveys prostration with body. तेभ्यः नमः- (prostration to those Rudras). This conveys prostration with mind. Verbal prostration was conveyed by नमो रुद्रेभ्यः at the beginning. ते- Those Rudras, नः- us, मृडयन्तु- may make comfortable. ते- We who have prostrated with all three instruments (mind, speech and body), यं- whomsoever, द्विष्मः- hate, यश्च- whoever, नः- us, द्वेष्टि- hate, तं- both those people, वः- your, जम्भे- in open mouth, दधामि- place. (Please destroy them and protect us).
अन्नमिषवः- Sri Rudraganas use the food eaten by sinners as tools for torturing them.That is, they make them eat unsuitable food or too much food and cause diseases and torture them. They torture some by denying food completely and letting them suffer from intense hunger. They torture some others by making them steal food and then subject them to punishment. Thus food becomes the instrument of torture of sinners and hence called arrow.
Similarly वात इषवः in the scond mantra and वर्षमिषवः in the third mantra must be interpreted.
वात इषवः- Rudras who use wind as arrow. As they torture sinners by creating heavy winds or diseases of wind, wind itself has been called as arrow.
वर्षमिषवः- Rudras who use rain as arrow. As they torture sinners by creating very heavy rains or no rain at all, rain itself has been called as arrow.
Meaning of second mantra: अन्तरिक्षे- In the sky, ये- which Rudras (are), येषां- for whom, वातः- winds, इषवः- (are) arrows (weapons of torture), prostration to them. Rest is as in the first mantra.
Meaning of third mantra: दिवि- In Swarga, ये- which Rudras (are), येषां- for whom, वर्षं- rain, इषवः- (are) arrows (weapons of torture), prostration to them. Rest is as in the first mantra.
From नमो रुद्रेभ्यः upto दधामि, the three yajur mantras are together one mantra. Devata and Rishi is Rudra himself. The Dhyanam mentioned in ‘Sahasrani Sahasrasa:’ should be taken as Dhyanam here also.
त्र्यम्बकं यजामहे सुगन्धिं पुष्टिवर्धनम् ।
उर्वारुकमिव बन्धनान्मृत्योर्मुक्षीय मामृतात् ॥
सुगन्धिं- Of good scent, पुष्टिवर्धनं- augmentor of nourishment of everything, त्र्यम्बकं- Sri Rudra with three eyes, यजामहे- we worship. बन्धनात्- From the connecting stem, उर्वारुकमिव- like cucumber (separating and falling down), मृत्योः- from the bondage of samsara, मुक्षीय- we must be relieved. अमृतात्- From Moksha, मा (मुक्षीय)- we should not be relieved.
It is in practice to chant this mantra and the succeeding Riks along with Rudradhyaya. It appears that as these are also Mahamantras extolling Sri Rudra alone, they are chanted with Sri Rudram.
As the scent, colour etc. of the form of Sri Parameswara are all superior as mentioned by Upanishad in ‘Divyagandha:’, ‘Divyarasa:’ etc., सुगन्धिं has been used here. Further, Sri Parameswara grows the nourishment of his devotees in all respects. We, who extol that Parameswara, should be relieved from the bondage of samsara effortlessly, just as the ripe cucumber falls off on its own from the connecting stem. We should never fall off the aim of Moksha, i.e. Nivritti Marga (path of renunciation), which is the path for Moksha.
यो रुद्रो अग्नौ यो अप्सु य ओषधीषु यो रुद्रो विश्वा भुवना विवेश तस्मै रुद्राय नमो अस्तु ॥
यः रुद्रः- Which Rudra, अग्नौ- in Agni, विवेश- has entered (as burning power), यः- which Rudra, अप्सु- (has entered) in waters, यः- which Rudra, ओषधीषु- (has entered) in herbs, यो रुद्रः- which Rudra, विश्वा भुवना- in all worlds, विवेश- has entered, तस्मै रुद्राय- to that Rudra, नमः अस्तु- may my prostration be.
It is clear that as Sri Rudra pervades everywhere, we can attain good state in all places by worshipping him.
तमुष्टुहि यः स्विषुस्सुधन्वा यो विश्वस्य क्षयति भेषजस्य ।
यक्ष्वामहे सौमनसाय रुद्रं नमोभिर्देवमसुरं दुवस्य ॥
यः- Which Rudra, स्विषुः- has excellent arrow, सुधन्वा- excellent bow, यः- who, विश्वस्य- of all kinds, भेषजस्य- of medicine, क्षयति- is abode of, तमु- that Rudra alone, स्तुहि- extol. महे- Abundant, सौमनसाय- for mental peace, असुरं- very strong, or augmentor of lifespan, देवं- brilliant, रुद्रं- Sri Rudra, यक्ष्व- worship. नमोभिः- With prostrations, दुवस्य- honour (him alone).
With the three words स्तुहि-यक्ष्व-दुवस्य, it is conveyed that we should extol Sri Rudra alone with our speech, mind and body. This is because he is the abode of all medicines giving relief from poverty, disease, short life etc. Further he protects us always, keeping excellent arrows and bow in hand.
अयं मे हस्तो भगवानयं मे भगवत्तरः ।
अयं मे विश्वभेषजोयँ शिवाभिमर्शनः ॥
मे- My, अयं हस्तः- this hand, शिवाभिमर्शनः- touches the auspicious idol of Sri Parameswara. (performs Abhishekam, decoration etc.) अयं- This hand, भगवान्- is fortunate. मे- My, अयं- this hand, भगवत्तरः- is very fortunate. मे- My, अयं- this hand, विश्वभेषजः- becomes also medicine relieving from all diseases.
The idea is that as the hand which worships Sri Parameswara is very fortunate and capable of relieving from all diseases, everyone should worship Parameswara without fail.
ये ते सहस्रमयुतं पाशा मृत्यो मर्त्याय हन्तवे ।
तान् यज्ञस्य मायया सर्वानवयजामहे ॥
मृत्यो- O Parameswara, the form of Death, मर्त्याय- all dying creatures, हन्तवे- for catching, ते- your, सहस्रं- in thousands, अयुतं- in tens of thousands, ये- which, पाशाः- ropes (and similar instruments of torture are there), तान् सर्वान्- all of them, यज्ञस्य मायया- with the strength of our good actions, अवयजामहे- put aside.
There are many instruments with Sri Parameswara to cause untimely death. This shows that we should put all of them aside by doing good actions.
मृत्यवे स्वाहा- मृत्यवे स्वाहा ॥
मृत्यवे- To Sri Parameswara, the form of Death, स्वाहा- this homam is being performed.
ओं नमो भगवते रुद्राय विष्णवे मृत्युर्मे पाहि ॥
विष्णवे- All-pervasive, भगवते- full of the six glories like wealth etc., रुद्राय- to Sri Parameswara, remover of the misery of samsara, नमः- prostration. मृत्युः- From the bondage of samsara, मे- me, पाहि- please protect.
As this is Veda, certain grammatical cases are changed.
अग्नाविष्णू सजोषसेमा वर्धन्तु वां गिरः ।
Kalpam: After chanting the mantra अग्नाविष्णू and performing homam four times with ghee, one should then perform homam in continuous flow, chanting the mantras from वाजश्चमे upto the eleventh Anuvakam at the same time. Here from वाजश्चमे upto the eleventh Anuvakam it is a single mantra. The division into eleven Anuvakams has been done for the purpose of using each Anuvakam as one mantra in karmas like Parayanam, other than Homam. This अग्नाविष्णू mantra alone must be chanted for Chaturgrihita Homam.
हे अग्नाविष्णू- O Devas Agni and Vishnu! सजोषसा- (Both of you) be kind in the same manner. वां- Spoken about you, इमा गिरः- these words of praise, वर्धन्तु- may grow. द्युम्नैः- With materials (like gold, silver etc.), वाजेभिः- and food items, आगतम्- please come.
While calling upon two Devas, both of them should have the same extent of kindness. If there is difference they will not come forward to bestow fruits together. Hence it is prayed first that both should be kind to us to the same extent. This is followed by prayer that we should also praise you very well and you should come and give us materials and foods.
मे- To me, वाजः- food, कल्पताम्- may be available.
The word कल्पतां in the tenth Anuvakam must be attached to all the words upto that point. That word will give the meaning appropriate to the place. The word च indicates the togetherness, i.e. food and all the other materials mentioned hereafter should all be available.
प्रसवः- Permission (for making food available, eating it etc.). (कल्पतां- Wherever I go, I should get this kind of permission).
प्रयतिः- purity, प्रसितिः- on seeing food, staying there with desire to eat, धीतिः- accepting food, क्रतुः- the yagna, the cause of food, स्वरः- the intonation in chanting mantra like ‘Udaatta’, श्लोकः- praise, श्रावः- capacity to speak such that many people enjoy listening, श्रुतिः- capacity to enjoy listening, ज्योतिः- light, सुवः- Swarga, प्राणः- Pranavayu, अपानः- Apanavayu, व्यानः- Vyanavayu (Air going from outside into body is Prana; air emerging out of the body is Apana; air present in joints of limbs is Vyana). असुः- air (in general), चित्तं- knowledge in the mind, अधीतं- matters appearing in that knowledge, वाक्- organ of speech, मनः- mind, चक्षुः- eye, श्रोत्रं- ear, दक्षः- capacity of Gnanendriyas, बलं- capacity of Karmendriyas, ओजः- virulence, the cause of this strength (eigth dhatu- element), सहः- capacity to attack enemy, आयुः- lifespan, जरा- life till attaining old age, आत्मा- Paramatma, reputed in Sastras, तनुः- handsome body, शर्म- comfort, वर्म- armour to protect the body etc., अङ्गानि- full limbs, अस्थानि- bones in required places, परूँषि- joints in hands etc., शरीराणि- other parts of the body.
It is prayed that all these should be properly available to me.
ज्यैष्ट्यं- excellence in everything, आधिपत्यं- lordship, मन्युः- mental anger, भामः- anger expressing in external signs,
As anger is also required on certain occasions, it is prayed that capacity for anger on right occasions be provided.
अमः- nature that cannot be deciphered by enemies, अम्भः- cool, sweet water, जेमा- capacity to win, महिमा- possessing wealth etc. obtained through success, वरिमा- being honoured, प्रथिमा- growth in properties like house, land etc., वर्ष्मा- excellent bodies of son, grandson etc., द्राघुया- growth of lineage of son, grandson etc., वृद्धं- abundant wealth and food, वृद्धिः- honour through learning etc., सत्यं- speaking truth, श्रद्धा- faith in existence of after-worlds, जगत्- movable cattle etc., धनं- other wealth, वशः- bringing all under our control, त्विषिः- shine of body, क्रीडा- play, मोदः- delight on account of it, जातं- children born, जनिष्यमाणं- children yet to be born, सूक्तं- group of Riks, सुकृतं- merit of chanting those Riks, वित्तं- wealth earned, वेद्यं- wealth to be earned, भूतं- land etc. already with me, भविष्यत्- land etc. to be got in future, सुगं- places to be certainly visited- village full of relatives etc. सुपथं- good path free from thieves etc., ऋद्धं- fruit of karmas performed so far, or, wealth accumulated, ऋद्धिः- fruit of yaga called Satra, to be performed in future, क्लृप्तं- materials required for karmas, क्लृप्तिः- own capability, मतिः- determination of ordinary matters, सुमतिः- determination of very intricate royal matters.
शं- comfort in this world, मयः- comfort in the next world, प्रियं- object of love, अनुकामः- object much loved.
Compared to ‘Priyam’, ‘Anukama:’ should be taken to indicate greater love. Both refer to love in this world only.
कामः- pleasure in the next world, Swarga etc., सौमनसः- relatives who provide peace of mind, भद्रं- auspicious, beautiful object of this world, श्रेयः- that which leads to good in next world, वस्यः- house for living etc., यशः- fame, भगः- good luck, द्रविणं- wealth, यन्ता- Acharya etc. who give instructions, धर्ता- father etc. who protect, क्षेमः- power to preserve existing wealth, धृतिः- not getting shaken even during time of danger, विश्वं- being favourable to all, महः- adoration (done by us to superiors, or, done by many to us), संवित्- knowledge of Vedas and Sastras, ज्ञात्रं- capacity to remind at right time, सूः- capacity to engage sons etc. in activities, प्रसूः- capacity to order servants, सीरं- possession of plough, bull etc. required for farming, लयः- undoing of damages to them, ऋतं- karmas like yagna, अमृतं- their fruit, अयक्ष्मं- freedom from incurable serious disease, अनामयं- freedom from ordinary diseases like fever etc., जीवातुः- cause of life (here medicine to cure disease), दीर्घायुत्वं- long life (freedom from untimely death), अनमित्रं- freedom from enemy, अभयं- freedom from fear, सुर्गं- conduct acceptable to all, शयनं- good bed, सूषा- auspicious dawn with bath, Sandhyavandanam etc., सुदिनं- auspicious day with yagna, danam, Vedic study etc.
ऊर्क्- food material, सूनृता- good word, पयः- milk, रसः- taste in it, घृतं- ghee, मधु- honey, सग्धिः- eating along with relatives, सपीतिः- drinking together, कृषिः- agriculture, वृष्टिः- rain, जैत्रं- successful, i.e. good-yielding land, औद्भिद्यं- growth of plant, creeper etc., रयिः- gold, रायः- gem etc., पुष्टं- abundance of gem, pearl etc., पुष्टिः- bodily strength,
विभु, प्रभु, बहु, भूयः, पूर्णं, पूर्णतरं, अक्षितिः- these seven words indicate progressive increase in growth of foodgrains, the second indicating a higher growth than the first and so on; the seventh indicating the highest growth.
कूयवाः- minor foodgrains, अन्नं- reputed food, अक्षुत्- relief from hunger, व्रीहयः- paddy, यवाः- barley, माषाः- black gram, तिलाः- gingelly, मुद्गाः- kidney-bean, खल्वाः- bean (another type), गोधूमाः- wheat, मसुराः- lentil (dal), प्रियङ्गवः- long pepper, अणवः- thin paddy, श्यामाकाः- corn, नीवाराः- wild rice.
अश्माः- Stone, मृत्तिकाः- soil, गिरयः- mountains worthy of worship, Kulachalas, पर्वताः- ordinary mountains, सिकताः- sand, वनस्पतयः- trees growing vegetables/ fruits without flower, हिरण्यं- gold, अमः- iron, सीसं- lead, त्रपुः- tin, श्यामं- rock salt, लोहं- bronze, copper etc., अग्निः- fire, आपः- water, वीरुधः- plants, ओषधयः- herbs, कृष्टपच्यं- grown by planting and farming, अकृष्टपच्यं- grown on their own without farming, ग्राम्याः पशवः- animals growing in villages, आरण्याश्च- animals growing in forests, यज्ञेन- through the yagna I perform, कल्पन्ताम्- may become capable of doing their acts. वित्तं- Wealth earned, वित्तिः- profit yet to be obtained, भूतं- wealthy son etc., भूतिः- wealth etc. owned by me, वसु- cow etc. required for living, वसतिः- house for living etc., कर्म- karmas like Agnihotram etc., शक्तिः- capacity to perform them, अर्थः- benefit from them, एमः- pleasure to be attained, इतिः- means of attaining it, गतिः- attaining desired object.