Manu Smriti: Common Dharmas

Manu Smriti: Common Dharmas
By P. R. Kannan

ॐ श्रीगुरुभ्यो नमः


-    (Skanda Purana, Sethu Khanda)
“O future kings! This Ramachandra bows to you again and again and begs of you to protect and preserve always from time to time this bridge of Dharma, meant for humanity in general.”

Manusmriti is a book of laws, authored by the earliest and the most authoritative Law-giver, Bhagavan Manu. This book derives its authority from the Vedas and lays down rules of conduct and procedures of rituals for individuals in different walks of life. Known also as Dharmasastra, this unique book deals with human life right from birth to death. In Sanatana Dharma, there are four Purusharthas (objectives of human life) to be achieved by every human being on earth, viz. Dharma (Righteousness), Artha (wealth), Kama (desire) and Moksha (Liberation). Manusmriti sets out clear guidelines not only on how to follow the path of Dharma, but also on how to do it with the aim of achieving the other three Purusharthas. Tradition has it that Lord Brahma taught this Smriti to the first Manu, Swayambhuva Manu, who in turn enlightened Sage Bhrigu on this. The presently available text of about 3000 verses claims its source to this sage, as handed down through successive generations.

In Manusmriti there are many verses dealing with Samanya Dharmas, eternal rules of conduct, applicable to all humans at all times. As instructed by Jagadguru Sri Sankaracharya Swamiji of Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham, the following compilation of such verses with translation has been prepared. An essay on the ten fundamental virtues to be cultivated by every human being, as enunciated by Manu, is also appended.

1. Brahma’s Creation & Yugas                              
2. Authorities for Dharma & Karmayoga
3. Dharma the basic Purushartha (Aim of Human Life)
4. Discipline in Gurukula                                        
5. Serving Parents and Guru
6. Honouring Elders
7. Honour & Status of Women
8. Grihasthasrama
9. Living and Travel
10. Rules of Daily Routine
11. Virtuous Conduct
12. Truthful Speech
13. Charity
14. Non-violence
15. Purity
16. Control of Senses and Mind
17. Tapas (Austerity)
18. Karmas and Fruits
19. Three Gunas (Attributes)
20. Sins and Expiation
21. Ruler’s Qualities
22. Ruler and his Duties      
23. Justice by King
24. Vanaprastha
25. Sanyasa
26. Gnana
Appendix: An Essay on Ten Fundamental Virtues

1. Brahma’s Creation & Yugas                           

सरितःसागरान्शैलान्समानिविषमाणिच। (१:२४)
(At the beginning) Brahma created Time and its divisions, stars, planets, rivers, oceans, mountains and even and uneven terrains. (1:24)

सृष्टिंससर्जचैवेमांस्रष्टुंइच्छन्इमाःप्रजाः॥ (१:२५)
He also created penance, speech, mental pleasure, desire and anger as prelude to creating humans. (1:25)

द्वन्द्वैःअयोजयच्चेमाःसुखदुःखादिभिःप्रजाः। (१:२६)
He laid out Dharma (dos) and Adharma (donts) for proper discrimination of actions and he associated pleasures and sorrows with them respectively. (1:26)

यद्यस्ययोऽदधात्सर्गेततस्यस्वयमाविशत्॥ (१:२९)
At the beginning of creation, qualities like violence and non-violence, softness and cruelty, righteousness and unrighteousness, truth and falsehood entered creatures in the same manner they possessed them prior to dissolution. (Karmic tendencies of previous births give rise to corresponding qualities in the respective creatures in the new creation.) (1:29)

नाधर्मॆणआगमःकश्चित्मनुष्यान्प्रतिवर्तते॥ (१:८१)
In the Kritayuga, dharma stood on all four legs. (Dharma is generally picturised in the form of bull with four legs- penance, knowledge, sacrifices and charity; refer to Manusmriti 1:86). Truth ruled supreme; nothing came to humans through unrighteous means. (1:81)

चौरिक-अनृत-मायाभिःधर्मश्चापैतिपादशः॥ (१:८२)
In the other three yugas, Dharma steadily declined through theft, falsehood and deceit. (1:82)

कृतेत्रेतादिषुह्येषां- आयुर्- ह्रसतिपादशः॥ (१:८३)
In Kritayuga, people were free from disease, had all desires fulfilled and lived for 400 years. In the following Treta, Dvapara and Kali yugas, their lifespan went on declining by a quarter. (1:83)

द्वापरेयज्ञमेवाहुःदानमेकंकलौयुगे॥ (१:८६)
In Kritayuga, penance is the greatest means; in Tretayuga, it is Knowledge; in Dvaparayuga, it is yagna (ritual sacrifice); in Kaliyuga, it is charity alone. (1:86)

2. Authorities for Dharma & Karmayoga

सर्वस्यतपसोमूलंआचारंजगृहुःपरम्॥ (१:११०)
Knowing thus that Dharma flows from conduct, the sages held that good conduct is the root of all austerity. (1:110)

हृदयेन-अभ्यनुज्ञातोयोधर्मःतंनिबोधत॥ (२:१)
Know that as Dharma, which is practised by knowers of Veda, who are established in truth and ever free from attachment and hatred, and which is accepted wholeheartedly by them. (2:1)

काम्योहिवेदाधिगमःकर्मयोगश्चवैदिकः॥ (२:२)
Looking for fruits of actins is not recommended (as it results in bondage). Complete freedom from desire is also not seen in this world. Hence knowing the import of Vedas and performing actions prescribed in Vedas in the spirit of Karmayoga (renouncing the sense of doership and not expecting fruits of action) is to be sought. (2:2)

व्रतानियमधर्माश्चसर्वेसंकल्पदाःस्मृताः॥ (२:३)
Sankalpa is affirmation of the fruit of a particular action. All desires are rooted in Sankalpa. Yagnas (Vedic sacrifices) are born out of Sankalpa. All vratas (vows to be practised) and Yamas (tendencies to be conquered) are also rooted in Sankalpa. (2:3)

यद्यद्धिकुरुतेकिंचित्-तत्तत्त्कामस्यचेष्टितम्॥ (२:४)
No action is seen performed anywhere in this world, which is not propelled by desire. Whatever is done is all actuated by desire alone. (2:4)

यथासंकल्पितांश्चेहसर्वान्-कामान्- समश्नुते॥ (२:५)
Doing prescribed actions in right way, man attains the world of Gods (also Liberation); in this world also, he enjoys fulfillment of all desires. (2:5)

आचारश्चैवसाधूनाम्-आत्मनस्-तुष्टिरेवच॥ (२:६)
Veda is the root of all Dharma. Further the Smritis (based on Vedas), the virtues of the knowers of the Vedas, the conduct of the noble and self-satisfaction are also indicators of Dharma. (2:6)

ससर्वोऽभिहितोवेदेसर्वज्ञानमयोहिसः॥ (२:७)
Whatever Dharma for whomsoever has been prescribed by Manu, it is all expounded in Veda; Manu is indeed embodiment of all knowledge. (2:7)

श्रुति-प्रामाण्यतोविद्वान्-स्वधर्मेनिविशेतवै॥ (२:८)
Keeping all this in view through his eyes of knowledge, a learned man should engage in Swadharma (Dharma prescribed in Vedas and Smriti, applicable to himself) on the authority of Vedas. (2:8)

इहकीर्तिम्-अवाप्नोतिप्रेत्यच-अनुत्तमंसुखम्॥ (२:९)
Practising Dharma as specified in Vedas and Smritis, man attains fame in this world and excellent happiness in the next world. (2:9)

तेसर्वार्थेषु-अमीमांस्येताभ्यांधर्मोहिनिर्बभौ॥ (२:१०)
‘Sruti’ is to be understood as Veda and ‘Smriti’ as Dharmasatra. All injunctions therein are beyond the ken of human logic and analysis. Dharma indeed shines in Sruti and Smriti.

ससाधुभिर्-बहिष्कार्योनास्तिकोवेदनिन्दकः॥ (२:११)
A scholar, who disregards the two basic authorities, Sruti and Smriti, by resorting to disputation, is to be shunned by the virtuous as aethist, who is given to censuring the Vedas. (2:11)

एत-च्चतुर्विधंप्राहुःसाक्षाद्-धर्मस्यलक्षणम्। (२:१२)
The definition of Dharma is said to be fourfold - Veda, Smriti, noble conduct and self-satisfaction.

धर्मंजिज्ञासमानानांप्रमाणंपरमंश्रुतिः॥ (२:१३)
True knowledge of Dharma is confined to those who are not attached to Artha (wealth) and Kama (desire). Sruti is the ultimate authority for those who desire knowledge of Dharma.

स्वंस्वंचरित्रंशिक्षेरन्पृथिव्यांसर्व-मानवाः॥ (२:२०)
 Let all people of the world learn their applicable rules of conduct from the wise persons born in this land (marked by holy places like Kurukshetra). (2:20)

3. Dharma the basic Purushartha (Aim of Human Life)

अर्थएवेहवाश्रेयस्-त्रिवर्गइतितुस्थितिः॥ (२:२२४)
Some say that Dharma and Artha are benefactors; some others say that Kama and Artha are good and yet others say that Dharma alone is beneficial. There are again people who say that Artha alone is beneficial. But the truth is that all the three are important. (This statement applies to ordinary people; for those who are intent on Moksha, Moksha alone is the focus.) (2:224)

धीर्-विद्यासत्यं-अक्रोधोदशकंधर्म-लक्षणम्॥ (६:९२)
Steadfastness (in pursuit of dharma), forbearance (not reciprocating evil), control of mind, not coveting others’ property, purity (external and internal), control of senses, use of intellect in acquisition of scriptural knowledge, Self-knowledge, truth (in thought, word and deed) and abstinence from anger (when there is scope for anger) - these are the ten characteristics of dharma. (6:92)

अधार्मिकाणांपापानां-आशुपश्यन्-विपर्ययम्॥ (४:१७१)
Even if suffering while practising dharma, one should never even think of engaging in adharma. Sinners, engaged in acts of adharma, though appearing happy initially, are soon seen falling into misery. (4:171)

शनैर्-आवर्तमानस्तुकर्तुर्-मूलानिकृन्तति॥ (४:१७२)
Adharma, when practised, does not bring instant fruit, like land (which gives out  foodgrains after a long time) (or, unlike cow, which provides milk immediately). The fruit returns slowly and roots out completely the well-being of the doer. (4:172)

नत्वेवतुकृतोऽधर्मःकर्तुर्-भवतिनिष्फलः॥ (४:१७३)
If Adharma practised has not piled fruit on the doer, it will heap the fruit on his sons or grandsons. If this is not so, the adharma practised by the doer will become fruitless. (4:173)

ततःसपत्नान्-जयतिसमूलस्तुविनश्यति॥ (४:१७४)
One, who practises adharma, experiences mundane prosperity initially, meets with many auspicious occurrences and then defeats his enemies. But in due course he perishes root and branch. (4:174)

धर्मंचाप्य्-असुखोदर्कंलोक-विक्रुष्टमेवच॥ (४:१७६)
Pursuit of Artha and Kama, if opposed to Dharma, should be abandoned. Even that dharma, which might bring unhappiness at a later stage or which is reviled by the society, should be discarded. (4:176)

परलोक-सहायार्थंसर्व-भूतान्य्-अपीडयन्॥ (४:२३८)
Without harming any creature and for assistance in attaining welfare in the next world, one should gather dharma gradually, like white ants building ant-hill. (4:238)

नपुत्र-दारानज्ञातिर्-धर्मस्-तिष्ठतिकेवलः॥ (४:२३९)
In the next world, neither one’s father, mother, son and wife, nor relatives are available for help; it is dharma alone which stands by him. (4:239)

एकोऽनुभुङ्त्तेसुकृतं-एकएवचदुष्कृतम्॥ (४:२४०)
A creature is born all alone; he dies all alone; he reaps the fruits of good deeds all alone; he reaps the fruits of evil deeds also all alone. (4:240)

शरीरेणसमंनाशंसर्वं-अन्यद्धिगच्छति॥ (८:१७)
Dharma is the only well-wisher and friend, which accompanies one even on death. All else (wife, sons and relatives) abandon him along with his body. (8:17)

विमुखाबान्धवायान्तिधर्मस्-तं-अनुगच्छति॥ (४:२४१)
The relatives leave the dead body on the ground like a log of wood or lump of earth and go away without turning back. It is dharma alone which accompanies the dead person. (4:241)

धर्मेणहिसहायेनतमस्-तरतिदुस्तरम्॥ (४:२४२)
Hence one should always accumulate dharma gradually for assistance. It is only with dharma’s assistance that one crosses the darkness, difficult to cross. (4:242)

तस्माद्-धर्मोनहन्तव्योमानोधर्मोहतोऽवधीत्॥ (८:१५)
Dharma verily destroys one who destroys it; it is dharma again, which protects one who protects it. Hence one should take care not to attack (deviate from) dharma; if not it is sure to destroy him. (8:15)

अक्लेशेनशरीरस्यकुर्वीतधनसञ्चयम्॥ (४:३)
One should acquire only so much wealth as sufficient for family maintenance through actions beyond reproach without unduly torturing the body. (4:3)

तयोर्-दैवं-अचिन्त्यंतुमानुषेविद्यतेक्रिया॥ (७:२०५)
All actions in this world are dependent on two factors, destiny and human effort. Of the two, destiny is beyond one’s control; hence action should be undertaken with full human effort. (7:205)

नविद्यमानेष्व्-अर्थेषुनार्त्यामपियतस्ततः॥ (४:१५)
One should not earn money through his pet hobbies, nor prohibited acts. Even in adverse circumstances he should not earn money by unscrupulous means or sources. (4:15)

आमृत्योःश्रियं-अन्विच्छेन्-नैनांमन्येतदुर्लभाम्॥ (४:१३७)
One should not reproach himself for past failures in acquisition of wealth. One should put in efforts to attain wealth till end of life. He should never regard it as unattainable. (4:137)

4. Discipline in Gurukula     

आददीतयतोज्ञानंतंपूर्वम्-अभिवादयेत्॥ (२:११७)
One should pay obeisance to Guru, who has given the knowledge of mundane matters, Vedic subjects and spiritual insights. (2:117)

शय्यासनस्थश्-चैवैनंप्रत्युत्थाय-अभिवादयेत्॥ (२:११९)
One should not use the bed or seat, even casually used by Guru or elders. If himself in bed or seat, he should get up and pay obeisance to Guru on the latter’s arrival. (2:119)

सहस्रंतुपितॄन्-मातागौरवेण-अतिरिच्यते॥ (२:१४५)
An Acharya is ten times greater than Upadhyaya. (Upadhyaya is one who teaches Vedas and Vedangas for a living; Acharya is one who performs the Upanayanam and initiates the disciple into Vedas and rituals along with their secrets.) The father is ten times greater than Acharya; but the mother is a thousand times greater in glory than father. (2:145)

वाक्चैवमधुराश्लक्ष्णाप्रयोज्याधर्मम्-इच्छता॥ (२:१५९)
The teacher should enforce discipline for the good of the disciple through non-violent means and sweet and gentle speech, with dharma in view. (2:159)

सन्नियम्य-इन्द्रिय-ग्रामंततो-वृद्ध्यर्थम्-आत्मनः॥ (२:१७५)
The brahmachari, while living in the Gurukula, must observe these rules (of discipline) and have the senses restrained in order to enrich his self. (2:175)

शुक्तानियानिसर्वाणिप्राणिनांचैवहिंसनम्॥ (२:१७७)
He must abstain from use of liquor (or honey), flesh, fragrant substances, garland, women and vinegar (substances remaining tasty over long periods of time) and never engage in violence to living creatures. (2:177)

कामंक्रोधंचलोभंचनर्तनंगीत-वादनम्॥ (२:१७८)
He must abstain from oil-bath, applying collyrium in eyes, use of footwear and umbrella; he should keep himself away from lust, anger, greed, dance and vocal and instrumental music. (2:178)

स्त्रीणांचप्रेक्षण-आलम्भं-उपघातंपरस्यच॥ (२:१७९)
He must abstain from gambling, meaningless gossip, talking of others’ faults, indulging in falsehood, gazing at and embracing women and harming others. (2:179)

संहत्यहस्ता-वध्येयंसहिब्रह्मान्जलिःस्मृतः॥ (२:७१)
The feet of Guru shall be touched (by the disciple) always at the beginning and close of each session of learning of Veda from the Guru, the hands remaining folded in respect thereafter. This is said to be Brahmanjali. (2:71)

सव्येनसव्यःस्प्रष्टव्योदक्षिणेनचदक्षिणः॥ (२:७२)
The right foot of Guru shall be touched with right hand and left foot with left hand (by the disciple), the hands crossing each other. (2:72)

अध्येष्यमाणंतुगुरुर्- नित्यकालं-अतन्द्रितः।
अधीष्वभोइतिब्रूयाद्-विरामोऽस्त्वितिचारमेत्॥ (२:७३)
The Guru should always tell the disciple vigilantly to start learning at the beginning (of session) and to halt at the time of rest. (2:73)

उपांशुःस्याच्छतगुणःसाहस्रोमानसःस्मृतः॥ (२:८५)
Japayagna (recitation of mantra) is ten times superior to ritualistic yagnas. Japa in Upamsu mode (recitation audible only to reciter) is a hundred times superior (to loud chanting) and mental Japa (with no movement of tongue and lips) is a thousand times superior. (2:85)

उत्तिष्ठेत्-प्रथमंचास्यचरमंचैवसंविशेत्॥ (२:१९४)
His food, dress and appearance must always be lesser than that of the Guru. He should get up from bed before the Guru and go to bed after the Guru. (2:194)

नासीनोनचभुञ्जानोनतिष्ठन्नोपराङ्मुखः॥ (२:१९५)
The disciple should not take instructions from or engage in conversation with the Guru, when he himself is lying in bed, seated, is eating, standing or facing backwards. (2:195)

प्रत्युद्गम्यत्वाव्रजतःपश्चाद्-धावंस्तुधावतः॥ (२:१९६)
For the disciple to talk with or take instructions from the Guru, he should stand if Guru is seated; he should go forward in front of Guru if he is standing; he should go and receive the Guru if he is coming; he should run after Guru, if he happens to run. (2:196)

प्रणम्यतुशयानस्यनिदेशेचैवतिष्ठतः॥ (२:१९७)
He should go and stand facing the Guru, if he is facing backwards; he should go near the Guru, if he is at a distance; he should pay obeisance humbly, if the Guru is lying in bed or standing near. (2:197)

गुरोस्तुचक्षुर्-विषयेनयथेष्टासनोभवेत्॥ (२:१९८)
In Guru’s presence, the disciple should always be seated at a level lower than him. Within the sight of the Guru, he should not sit disrespectfully on a seat. (2:198)

नचैवास्य्-आनुकुर्वीतगति-भाषित-चेष्टितम्॥ (२:१९९)
Even during Guru’s absence, he should not utter the Guru’s mere name (without honorifics like Acharya, Guru etc.). He should not also imitate the Guru’s gait, speech and behavior (mockingly). (2:199)

कर्णौतत्रपिधातव्यौगन्तव्यंवाततोऽन्यतः॥ (२:२००)
Where the Guru is maligned or slandered, the disciple should close his ears or leave for some other place. (2:200)

परिभोक्ताकृमिर्-भवतिकीटोभवतिमत्सरी॥ (२:२०१)
By maligning the Guru, the disciple becomes a donkey (in his next life). By slandering the Guru, he becomes a dog. One, who enjoys the possessions of the Guru (illegally), becomes a worm; one who is jealous of the Guru becomes an insect. (2:201)

यानासनस्थश्च-एव-एनं-अवरुह्य-अभिवादयेत्॥ (२:२०२)
When the disciple is at a distance from the Guru, he should not worship the Guru (through another person). When he is angry or in the company of women, he should also not worship the Guru. When the disciple is seated in a vehicle, he should get down and pay obeisance to the Guru. (2:202)

असंश्रवेचैवगुरोर्नकिंचिदपिकीर्तयेत्॥ (२:२०३)
The disciple should not sit in such a place, where the wind from Guru’s side would touch him, nor where the wind from his side would touch the Guru. He should not talk anything (about Guru or anyone else) when Guru is not within hearing distance. (2:203)

आसीतगुरुणासार्धंशिला-फलक-नौषुच॥ (२:२०४)
The disciple may sit along with the Guru in a cart drawn by bullock, horse or camel, on the roof of building, in couches or straw mats, stones, wooden planks or boats. (2:204)

नचानिसृष्टोगुरुणास्वान्-गुरून्-अभिवादयेत्॥ (२:२०५)
When the disciple comes across the Guru of his own Guru, he should treat him like his own Guru. In the Guru’s presence, he should not worship elders (like his parents) unless instructed by Guru. (2:205)

प्रतिषेधत्सुचाधर्मान्-हितंचोपदिशत्स्वपि॥ (२:२०६)
The disciple should treat the following persons like his own Guru: other teachers, family elders (like uncle), those who prevent him from engaging in Adharma and those who preach moral good. (2:206)

गुरुपुत्रेषुचार्येषुगुरोश्चैवस्वबन्धुषु॥ (२:२०७)
The disciple should treat the following persons like his own Guru: those who excel in knowledge and discipline, sons of Guru, who are senior in age to him and Guru’s relatives. (2:207)

अध्यापयन्-गुरुसुतोगुरुवन्- मानं-अर्हति॥ (२:२०८)
Guru’s son, younger or of equal age, capable of teaching, or a priest in yagna or even a spectator in yagna, should be treated with respect like Guru himself. (2:208)

नकुर्याद्-गुरुपुत्रस्यपादयोश्च-अवनेजनम्॥ (२:२०९)
But the disciple should not do the following to the Guru’s son: massaging of body, bathing, eating remnants of his eaten food, washing his feet. (2:209)

गुरुपत्न्यानकार्याणिकेशानांचप्रसाधनम्॥ (२:२११)
The disciple should not do the following to the wife of Guru: oil-application, bathing, massaging of body, decorating hair (and body) (with flowers, sandal-paste etc.) (2:211)

पूर्णविंशति-वर्षेणगुणदोषौविजानता॥ (२:२१२)
If the wife of Guru is young, the disciple should not touch her feet while paying obeisance, if he is more than twenty years of age and knows the dharma of merit and demerit. (2:212)

तथागुरुगतांविद्यांशुश्रूषुर्-अधिगच्छति॥ (२:२१८)
Just as a person digging the ground with a spade ultimately finds water, the disciple, who diligently serves his Guru, attains the knowledge present in the Guru. (2:218)

सवैसर्वम्-अवाप्नोतिवेदान्त-उपगतंफलम्॥ (२:१६०)
One, whose speech and mind are pure and always well under control, attains all fruit expected of Vedanta. (2:160)

स्नास्यंस्तुगुरुणाऽज्ञप्तःशक्त्यागुर्वर्थम्-आहरेत्॥ (२:२४५)
Before his completion of studies (and leaving Gurukula), the brahmachari, who knows dharma, may not offer anything to the Guru. However, after completion of studies, he should fetch (even by begging from the rich) offerings for the Guru, as instructed by him and according to the disciple’s capacity. (2:245)

धान्यंशाकंचवासांसिगुरवेप्रीतिम्-आवहेत्॥ (२:२४६)
Land, gold, cow, horse, umbrella, footwear, seat, foodgrains, vegetables and clothes should be offered to the Guru, as would please him. (2:246)

5. Serving Parents and Guru

Acharya is verily the image of Brahman, father that of Prajapati (Brahma), mother that of Earth and brother is one’s own Self. (2:226)

नतस्यनिष्कृतिःशक्याकर्तुंवर्षशतैरपि॥ (२:२२७)
The misery endured by mother and father during birth and bringing up of child can never be repaid by him even in hundreds of years (births). (2:227)

तेष्वेवत्रिषुतुष्टेषुतपःसर्वंसमाप्यते॥ (२:२२८)
Father, mother and Acharya should always be propitiated. When these three are pleased, all the austerities culminate fruitfully. (2:228)

नतैर्-अभ्यननुज्ञातोधर्मम्-अन्यंसमाचरेत्॥ (२:२२९)
The service of these three persons is said to be the highest penance. Without their permission no other dharma should be practised. (2:229)

तएवहित्रयोवेदास्-तएवोक्तास्-त्रयोऽग्नयः॥ (२:२३०)
These three are said to be the three worlds, the three Asramas (Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa), the three Vedas and the three Agnis (Garhapatya, Dakshina and Ahavaniya). (2:230)

दीप्यमानःस्ववपुषादेववद्-दिविमोदते॥ (२:२३२)
By serving these three with no negligence, the grihastha (and brahmachari) will win all three worlds. His form shining brilliantly, he will enjoy happiness in Swarga like a Deva. (2:232)

गुरुशुश्रूषयात्वेवंब्रह्मलोकंसमश्नुते॥ (२:२३३)
With devotion to mother, he enjoys this world; with devotion to father, he attains the intermediate region; with service to Guru, he attains the world of Brahma. (2:233)

अनादृतास्तुयस्यैतेसर्वास्-तस्याफलाःक्रियाः॥ (२:२३४)
By one, who has treated these three with respect, all dharmas have been observed. In the case of one, who has not treated them with respect, all his actions do not bear any fruit. (2:234)

तेष्वेवनित्यंशुश्रूषांकुर्यात्-प्रियहितेरतः॥ (२:२३५)
During the lifetime of these three, the son shall not practise any other special dharma (without their permission). He should always serve them, being intent on what is pleasing and good for them. (2:235)

तत्तन्-निवेदयेत्-तेभ्योमनो-वचन-कर्मभिः॥ (२:२३६)
Whatever he does with mind, speech and actions for good in the next world, without hindering service to them (and with their permission), he should apprise them of those acts on completion. (2:236)

गुरुदारेसपिण्डेवागुरुवद्-वृत्तिम्-आचरेत्॥ (२:२४७)
If the Acharya expires, the disciple should pay obeisance to the Guru’s son, if virtuous, Guru’s wife or his relative (like uncle), as if to the Guru. (This rule applies specially to the life-long brahmachari, staying in Gurukula. (2:247)

6. Honouring Elders

प्रत्युत्थान-अभिवादाभ्यांपुनस्-तान्-प्रतिपद्यते॥ (२:१२०)
On the arrival of a person, senior in age or learning, the vital airs of the junior (who is seated) tend to go up and leave the body. He gets back the vital airs by standing up and paying obeisance to the senior. (2:120)

चत्वारितस्यवर्धन्तेआयुर्-विद्यायशोबलम्॥ (२:१२१)
The lifespan, learning, fame and strength - these four - of one, who is given to paying respects to and serving elders, grow well. (2:121)

कृताञ्जलिर्-उतासीतगच्छतःपृष्ठतोऽन्वियात्॥ (४:१५४)
One should pay obeisance to elders (who visit him) and offer his seat to them; he should sit close to them with folded hands and follow them behind when they leave. (4:154)

संपूज्यागुरुपत्नीवत्-समास्तागुरुभार्यया॥ (२:१३१)
The sister of one’s mother, wife of maternal uncle, mothers-in-law and sister of father should all be adored by way of standing up and paying obeisance, similar to the wife of Guru. (2:131)

मातृवद्-वृत्तिम्-आतिष्ठेन्-माताताभ्योगरीयसी (२:१३३)
The sisters of one’s father and mother and one’s own elder sister should all be treated like one’s own mother. However, of them all, mother is supreme. (2:133)

त्र्यब्दपूर्वंश्रोत्रियाणांस्वल्पेनापिस्वयोनिषु॥ (२:१३४)
A person living together in the same city for ten years is to be treated like a friend. Artists known for five years, Srotriyas (brahmanas versed in Vedas) for three years and blood relations even for a short time are also like friends. (2:134)

एतानिमान्यस्थानानिगरीयोयद्यद्-उत्तरम्॥ (२:१३६)
Wealth, relative, seniority in age, superiority in action and higher learning are all to be honoured. Of these, the latter shall be regarded as superior to the former. (2:136)

7. Honour & Status of Women

रक्षन्तिस्थविरेपुत्रानस्त्रीस्वातन्त्र्यं-अर्हति॥ (९:३)
The father protects a woman in her childhood till she is married; husband protects her in youth after marriage; sons protect her in old age; woman should not be allowed freedom. (9:3)

नालोमिकांनातिलोमांनवाचाटांनपिंगलाम्॥ (३:८)
One should not marry a bride who: is grey-haired, has extra limbs, is diseased, has no hair or too much of hair on the body, is too loquacious and yellow-eyed. (3:8)

नपक्ष्यहि-प्रेष्य-नाम्नींनचभीषण-नामिकाम्॥ (३:९)
The girl should not bear names of stars, trees, rivers, ill-cultured, mountains, birds, serpents, servants, nor terrifying names. (3:9)

तनु-लोम-केश-दशनांमृद्वङ्गीं-उद्वहेत्-स्त्रियम्॥ (३:१०)
One should marry a girl, free from handicaps, having pleasing name, attractive gait of swan and elephant, thin hair on body and head and thin teeth and soft limbs. (3:10)

तेषांनिष्ठातुविज्ञेयाविद्वद्भिःसप्तमेपदे॥ (८:२२७)
The mantras of ‘Panigrahana’ determine the attainment of status of wife. These mantras are defined by Vedic scholars to culminate in ‘Saptapadi’ (which alone finally confers the status of wife on the woman). (8:227)

नारीयानानिवस्त्रंवातेपापायान्त्-यधोगतिम्॥ (३:५२)
Those relatives, who usurp by delusion of mind, the riches brought by the bride including the girl herself, vehicles, clothes etc. are sinners, who attain to miserable state. (3:52)

पूज्याभूषयितव्याश्चबहु-कल्याणम्-ईप्सुभिः॥ (३:५५)
Father, brothers, husband and brothers-in-law should all honour and offer ornaments to the bride, if they are desirous of good prosperity. (3:55)

यत्रैतास्तुनपूज्यन्तेसर्वास्-तत्र-अफलाःक्रियाः॥ (३:५६)
The gods rejoice in the homes where women are honoured. Where they are not honoured, all rites (including Vedic yagas) are fruitless. (3:56)

नशोचन्तितुयत्रैतावर्धतेतद्धिसर्वदा॥ (३:५७)
Where women- wife, married sister or daughter, daughter-in-law etc.- are made to grieve, that family perishes quickly. Where they do not grieve, that family always prospers in all ways. (3:57)

तानिकृत्य्-आहतानीवविनश्यन्तिसमन्ततः॥ (३:५८)
In homes where the aforesaid women are not honoured and hence they curse, those homes perish in all ways as if struck by black magic. (3:58)

भूति-कामैर्-नरैर्-नित्यंसत्कारेषु-उत्सवेषुच॥ (३:५९)
Hence these women should always be honoured with ornaments, dresses, feast etc., particularly during festivals and religious celebrations, by men, desirous of prosperity. (3:59)

यस्मिन्नेवकुलेनित्यंकल्याणंतत्रवैध्रुवम्॥ (३:६०)
The entire family, where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wife with her husband, will surely be attended always by happiness and prosperity. (3:60)

नस्वातन्त्र्येणकर्तव्यंकिञ्चित्-कार्यंगृहेष्वपि॥ (५:१४७)
A female, be she a child, youth or old, should not be allowed to perform any activity independently even at home. (5:147)

पुत्राणांभर्तरिप्रेतेनभजेत्-स्त्रीस्वतन्त्रताम्॥ (५:१४८)
In childhood, a female should remain under the control of her father; in youth, her husband; when the husband dies, she must be under the control of her sons. She should not be allowed independence. (5:148)

सुसंस्कृतो-पस्करयाव्ययेचामुक्त-हस्तया॥ (५:१५०)
The woman should always be cheerful and perform household tasks efficiently. She should maintain household articles clean and well-organised. While spending, she should not be extravagant.

पतिंशुश्रूषतेयेनतेनस्वर्गेमहीयते॥ (५:१५५)
For women no separate yagna, vrata (ritual vow) or fast is prescribed. By serving her husband well she is adored in Swarga. (5:155)

शृगाल-योनिंप्राप्नोतिपाप-रोगैश्चपीड्यते॥ (५:१६४)
A woman, cohabiting with someone other than her husband, is vilified in this world and suffers from miserable diseases of sin; she is reborn as a jackal. (5:164)

स्वंचधर्मंप्रयत्नेनजायांरक्षन्हिरक्षति॥ (९:७)
One, who safeguards his wife with care, protects automatically his children, character, lineage, himself and his dharma. (9:7)

जायायास्-तद्धिजायात्वंयदस्यांजायतेपुनः॥ (९:८)
The husband enters into his wife, becomes embryo and is born as a child. The wife is known as ‘Jaaya’ as the husband is thus reborn from her. (9:8)

प्रत्यहंलोक-यात्रायाःप्रत्यक्षंस्त्रीनिबन्धनम्॥ (९:२७)
Giving birth to child, rearing the child and everyday running of the household - all these depend only on woman. (9:27)

दाराधीनस्-तथास्वर्गःपितॄणां-आत्मनश्चह॥ (९:२८)
Producing children, observing all requirements of dharma, service, superior sexual pleasure and ensuring attainment of Swarga by the Pitrus and himself- all these are dependent on wife. (9:28)

साभर्तृ-लोकान्-आप्नोतिसद्भिःसाध्वीतिचोच्यते॥ (९:२९)
A woman, who never crosses the will of her husband and keeps her mind, speech and body always under control, attains the meritorious worlds of her husband; here too, she is hailed as ‘sadhvi’ (noble woman) by virtuous people. (9:29)

यवीयसस्तुयाभार्यास्नुषाज्येष्ठस्यसास्मृता॥ (९:५७)
As per sages, the wife of elder brother should be regarded by the younger brother as wife of his Guru. The wife of younger brother should similarly be regarded by the elder brother as his daughter-in-law. (9:57)

दत्वापुनःप्रयच्छन्हिप्राप्नोतिपुरुषानृतम्॥ (९:७१)
A wise father, having promised to marry his daughter to a particular person, should not marry her to someone else. If he does so, he incurs the sin of ‘purushanrutam’ (falsehood). (9:71)

तांसाध्वींविभृयान्-नित्यंदेवानांप्रियं-आचरन्॥ (९:९५)
One gets wife not by his own will, but as gift from the gods. He should take care of that noble woman and thus carry out the wishes of the gods. (9:95)

एषधर्मःसमासेनज्ञेयःस्त्री-पुंसयोःपरः॥ (९:१०१)
It is the general rule of conjugal life in brief that the wife and husband follow dharma without crossing each other’s will till end of their life. (9:101)

नतुनामापिगृह्णीयात्-पत्यौप्रेतेपरस्यतु॥ (५:१५७)
After the death of her husband, the woman should live on sacred flowers, roots and fruits, thinning down her body; she should not even utter the name of another man. (5:157)

योधर्मएक-पत्नीनांकाङ्क्षन्तीतं-अनुत्तमम्॥ (५:१५८)
Till her death a widow should observe forgiveness and chastity with discipline and desire to follow the supreme rules of dedication to her dead husband’s memory. (5:158)

शेषास्-तं-उपजीवेयुर्-यथैवपितरंतथा॥ (९:१०५)
The eldest son alone shall inherit the entire parental property (on their death); the younger sons should depend on him in the same manner in which they were depending on their father so far. (9:105)

पुत्रवच्चापिवर्तेरन्-ज्येष्ठेभ्रातरिधर्मतः॥ (९:१०८)
The eldest son should look after his younger brothers as if they are his sons; the younger brothers should in turn look up to him as if they were his sons. (9:108)

स्वात्स्वादंशात्-चतुर्-भागंपतिताःस्य्र्-अदित्सवः॥ (९:११८)
Every brother should give a portion from their share to his sister. Any brother failing to give one-fourth of his share to his sister shall have fallen from dharma. (9:118)

यदपत्यंभवेदस्यांतन्ममस्यात्-स्वधाकरम्॥ (९:१२७)
If a man has no son, he should make his daughter ‘Putrika’ at the time of marriage; he should tell his son-in-law that the son born of her will perform all his post-death ceremonies. (9:127)

पौत्रीमातामहस्तेनदद्यात्-पिण्डंहरेद्-धनम्॥ (९:१३६)
Whether the father makes or does not make his daughter ‘Putrika’, if the daughter gives birth to a son from her husband of the same caste, that grandson should offer ‘Pindas’ to his grandfather and inherit his property. (9:136)

अथपुत्रस्यपौत्रेणब्रध्नस्य्-आप्नोतिविष्टपम्॥ (९:१३७)
By virtue of having a son, a man attains upper worlds of merit; by having a grandson, he enjoys those worlds for infinite period; by having a great-grandson, he occupies the world of Surya. (9:137)

तस्मात्-पुत्रइतिप्रोक्तःस्वयमेवस्वयंभुवा॥ (९:१३८)
A son rescues his father from the hell named ‘Pum’; hence Brahma himself called him ‘Putra’, (9:138)

दौहित्रोऽपिह्यमुत्रैनंसन्तारयतिपौत्रवत्॥ (९:१३९)
There is no difference between the son of daughter and son’s son; the daughter’s son also enables his mother’s father to attain meritorious world, like a son’s son would. (9:139)

तादृशंफलं-आप्नोतिकुपुत्रैःसन्तरंस्-तमः॥ (९:१६१)
Just as a person, who tries to cross waters sitting in a damaged boat, miserably fails, one cannot cross the ocean of darkness through unworthy sons. 9:169)

सर्वांस्-तांस्-तेनपुत्रेणपुत्रिणोमनुर्-अब्रवीत्॥ (९:१८२)
If there are many brothers born from same parents and only one out of them has a son, all the brothers will be deemed to have son; so said Manu. (9:182)

8. Grihasthasrama

द्वितीयं-आयुषोभागंकृतदारोगृहेवसेत्॥ (४:१)
After completing the first quarter of life in the hermitage of Guru, one should spend the second quarter in his home after marrying and along with his wife. (4:1)

आदित्याज्-जायतेवृष्टिर्-वृष्टेर्-अन्नंततःप्रजाः॥ (३:७६)
Oblation, properly offered in fire, attains to Sun; rains are born of Sun; food is born of rains; from food are born living beings. (3:76)

तथागृहस्थम्-आश्रित्यवर्तन्तेसर्वआश्रमाः॥ (३:७७)
Just as all living beings exist dependent on air (Prana), people of all Asramas depend on Grihastha (Householder) for their existence. (3:77)

गृहस्थेनैवधार्यन्तेतस्माज्-ज्येष्ठाश्रमोगृही॥ (३:७८)
As all the three Asramas (Brahmachari, Vanaprastha and Sanyasi) are supported by Grihastha alone through knowledge and food, Grihasthasrama is the seniormost Asrama. (3:78)

एतान्यपिसतांगेहेनोच्छिद्यन्तेकदाचन॥ (३:१०१)
Grass (as bed), ground (for rest), water, and kind words - these are never unavailable in the homes of the virtuous. (3:101)

तेनतेप्रेत्यपशुतांव्रजन्त्य्-अन्नादि-दायिनाम्॥ (३:१०४)
The householders, who enjoy food in others’ homes out of foolishness (unnecessarily with no occasion), attain to the state of animals in the homes of those providers of food etc. in their next birth. (3:104)

कालेप्राप्तस्त्वकालेवानास्यानश्नन्-गृहेवसेत्॥ (३:१०५)
A householder should not fail to entertain a guest even if he comes after sunset. Whether the guest arrives in time or late, he should never be permitted to stay without food. (3:105)

नास्यकश्चिद्-वसेद्-गेहेशक्तितोऽनर्चितोऽतिथिः॥ (४:२९)
In any household no guest should remain unentertained with seat, food, bed, water, roots and fruits (at least) according to one’s capacity. (4:29)

हैतुकान्-बकवृत्त्तींश्चवाङ्मात्रेणापिनार्चयेत्।। (४:३०)
Those who have their guise like followers of Vedic dharma, but are in reality opposed to Vedas; those earning their livelihood by prohibited deeds; greedy and harmful people (like cat); those who are showy and have no faith in Vedas; logicians opposed to Vedas; selfish and apparently humble people (like duck) - these types of persons should not be entertained even with good words. (4:30)

धन्यंयशस्यं-आयुष्यंस्वर्ग्यंवातिथि-पूजनम्॥ (३:१०६)
A householder should not himself consume food, which has not been served to the guest. Entertaining guest respectfully leads to attainment of wealth, fame, long life and also heaven. (3:106)

अतिथिभ्योऽग्रएवैतान्-भोजयेद्-अविचारयन्॥ (३:११४)
Newly married women (daughters, daughters-in-law), unmarried girls, sick persons, pregnant women - these should be fed prior to the guests without second thoughts. (3:114)

सभुञ्जानोनजानातिश्व-गृध्रैर्-जग्धिम्-आत्मनः॥ (३:११५)
One, who takes food before serving the guests without application of intellect, becomes the food for dogs and vultures in his next life. (3:115)

पूजयित्वाततःपश्चाद्-गृहस्थःशेष-भुग्-भवेत्॥ (३:११७)
Only after worshipping Devas, Rishis, guests, Pitrus and family gods, the householder should consume the left-over food. (3:117)

ननिर्वपतिपञ्चानां-उच्छ्वसन्-नसजीवति॥ (३:७२)
One, who fails to feed and nourish these five - Devatas, guests, dependents, manes and himself - , though breathing, is as good as dead. (3:72)

दद्याच्चसर्व-भूतानां-अन्नमेवप्रयत्नतः॥ (९:३३३)
A businessman should put in his best efforts in multiplying wealth through righteous means. He should take care to distribute food among all beings, food being the most important sustenance. (9:333)

9. Living and Travel

नोदक्यया-भिभाषेतयज्ञंगच्छेन्-नचावृतः॥ (४:५७)
One should not sleep in an empty house, wake up a person elderly or senior in learning etc., converse with a woman in her menses period, nor go to yagna uninvited (for acting as priest). (4:57)

नैकःप्रपद्येता-ध्वानंनचिरंपर्वतेवसेत्॥ (४:६०)
One should not live in a village of people of Adharma, nor overrun by many diseases. One should not travel on a path alone, nor live on a mountain for long. (4:60)

नभिन्न-शृङ्गाक्षि-खुरैर्-नवालधिविरूपितैः॥ (४:६७)
One should not travel in a cart drawn by animals (horse, bull etc.), not tamed, or suffering from hunger or disease, or with broken horns, defective eyes, improper hooves or damaged tail. (4:67)

वर्ण-रूपोप-संपन्नैःप्रतोदेनातुदन्-भृशम्॥ (४:६८)
One should always travel in carts drawn by animals, which are obedient, fast-moving, having all auspicious marks, good-looking with agreeable colour and without flogging them much. (4:68)

नाज्ञातेनसमंगच्छेन्-नैकोनवृषलैःसह॥ (४:१४०)
One should not travel anywhere alone very early in the morning, late in the evening or during midday and also not along with strangers and ill-cultured people. (4:140)

नाक्रमेत्-कामतश्-छायांबभ्रुणोदीक्षितस्यच॥ (४:१३०)
One should not knowingly cross the shadow of a godly image, Guru, king, teacher, a tawny-complexioned person and a person officiating in a yagna. (4:130)

श्लेष्म-निष्ठ्यूत-वान्तानिनाधितिष्ठेत्तुकामतः॥ (४: १३२)
One should not knowingly tread over the refuse of anointment, bath water, excreta and urine, blood, phlegm, sputum and vomited material. (4:132)

रात्रौचवृक्ष-मूलानिदूरतःपरिवर्जयेत्॥ (४:७३)
If a village or house is protected with a barrier, one should not enter through any place other than the gate. During night one should avoid bases of trees from a distance. (4:73)

नविण्मूत्रं-उदीक्षेतनबाहुभ्यांनदींतरेत्॥ (४:७७)
One should never pass through a place, where vision fails. One should not look at stools and urine. One should not cross a river with his hands (by swimming). (4:77)

स्नातकस्यचराज्ञश्चपन्थादेयोवरस्यच॥ (२:१३८)
Preference in path shall be allowed for one seated in chariot, one in nineties, diseased, person carrying heavy weight , women, brahmachari returning from Gurukula after completing Vedic study, the ruler and bridegroom on way to marriage. (2:138)

10. Rules of Daily Routine

कायक्लेशांश्चतन्मूलान्-वेद-तत्वार्थमेवच॥ (४:९२)
One should wake up in the last part of the night and contemplate on Dharma and Artha (wealth) (the two Purusharthas, objectives of human life). He should also consider the bodily and mental misery (to be experienced in pursuit of these Purusharthas) and meditate on the essence of Vedic knowledge. (4:92)

नमूत्रंपथिकुर्वीतनभस्मनिनगोव्रजे॥ (४:४५)
One should not eat food wearing only one cloth. One should not take bath in naked condition. One should not pass urine (and excreta) on a public path, ashes or in cowpen. (4:45)

नजीर्ण-देवायतनेनवल्मीकेकदाचन॥ (४:४६)
One should also never pass urine and excreta in a ploughed field, in water, in a kiln, on a mountain, in an old temple or in an ant-hill. (4:46)

ननदी-तीरं-आसाद्यनचपर्वत-मस्तके॥ (४:४७)
One should also not pass urine and excreta in ditches where living beings might exist, nor while walking or standing, nor on reaching the bank of river or peak of mountain. (4:47)

पूर्वाह्नएवकुर्वीतदेवतानांचपूजनम्॥ (४:१५२)
Answering call of nature, bodily makeup (haircut etc.), bath, brushing teeth, worship of Gods - all these should be done in the early morning. (4:152)

नवासोभिःसहाजस्रंनाविज्ञातेजलाशये॥ (४:१२९)
Bath should not be taken after eating food, in state of sickness (bath excluding the head is recommended where possible), in dead of night (9 pm to 3 am), with too much of clothing or in unknown water-body (in view of possible dangers from crocodiles etc.) (4:129)

निपानकर्तुःस्नात्वातुदुष्कृतांशेनलिप्यते॥ (४:२०१)
One should never take bath in a water-body created by someone else, as that would attach him to a share (one-fourth) of the sins committed by the maker of the reservoir. (4:201)

स्नानंसमाचरेन्-नित्यंगर्त-प्रस्रवणेषुच॥ (४:२०३)
One should always take bath in rivers (particularly those joining the sea), ponds associated with Gods, tanks and lakes, in waterfalls and in pits. (4:203)

नामेध्यंप्रक्षिपेद्-अग्नौनचपादौप्रतापयेत्॥ (४:५३)
One should not put off fire with mouth, look at a naked woman, deposit in fire impure things, warm up by showing feet to the fire. (4:53)

नचैनंपादतःकुर्यान्-नप्राणा-बाधं-आचरेत्॥ (४:५४)
One should not keep fire underneath his body (cot, seat etc.), cross the fire, keep the fire on the side of the leg and do anything endangering his life. (4:54)

नचैवप्रलिखेद्-भूमिंनात्मन-उपहरेत्-स्रजम्॥ (४:५५)
In the time of twilight one should not take food, nor go to another place and nor sleep. One should not scratch the ground, nor take off garland himself from his body. (4:55)

अमेध्य-लिप्तं-अन्यद्वालोहितंवाविषाणिवा॥ (४:५६)
One should not throw urine, excreta, sputum, anything impure, blood or poison in water. (4:56)

श्रियंप्रत्यङ्मुखोभुङ्त्तेऋतंभुङ्त्तेह्युदङ्मुखः॥ (२:५२)
One, who is desirous of long life, should have his meal facing east; one who desires fame should face south; one who desires wealth should face west; one who desires truth and harmony shall face north. (2:52)

दृष्ट्वाहृष्येत्-प्रसीदेच्चप्रतिनन्देच्चसर्वशः॥ (२:५४)
One shall always worship the food he gets and partake it without finding fault. On seeing food one shall feel happy, offer respects and pray that this source of sustenance of Prana shall always be available. (2:54)

अपूजितंतुतद्-भुक्तं-उभयंनाशयेद्-इदम्॥ (२:५५)
Food, which is worshipped, always bestows strength and energy. Food, if eaten without worship, destroys them both. (2:55)

नचैवात्यशनंकुर्यान्नचोच्छिष्टःक्वचिद्-व्रजेत्॥ (२:५६)
One should not give remnants of eaten food to anyone. One should not eat between meals (the two meals eaten in morning and evening). Overeating should not be done. One should not go anywhere without washing properly after meal. (2:56)

अपुण्यंलोक-विद्विष्टंतस्मात्-तत्-परिवर्जयेत्॥ (२:५७)
Excessive eating is unhealthy and opposed to longevity and religious merit and is condemned by people. Hence that should be shunned. (2:57)

नातिप्रगेनातिसायंनसायंप्रातर्-आशितः॥ (४:६२)
Neither food, left after extracting juice, oil etc., nor food to full satiety should be consumed. Food should not be taken early in the morning, or late in the evening. Having taken food to full satiety in the morning, one should not take food in the evening. (4:62)

केश-कीटावपन्नंचपदास्पृष्टंचकामतः॥ (४:२०७)
Food offered by persons in a state of intoxication, anger and disease should never be eaten. Also food, contaminated by hair and worms and want only touched by feet should never be consumed. (4:207)

नभिन्न-भाण्डेभुञ्जीतनभाव-प्रतिदूषिते॥ (४:६५)
One should never wash his feet in a vessel made of lead. One should not take food in a broken plate (unless made of copper, silver or gold), nor in a place causing aversion in the mind. (4:65)

नछिन्द्यान्-नख-लोमानिदन्तैर्-नोत्पाटयेन्-नखान्॥ (४:६९)
Early morning Sun, smoke from funeral pyre and broken seat should be avoided. Nails and hair should not be cut (outside of restricted time and manner). Nails should not be cut off with teeth. (4:69)

नकर्मनिष्फलंकुर्यान्-नायत्या-असुखोदयम्॥ (४:७०)
Earthen lump should not be moulded with hands (unnecessarily); Grass should not be cut with nails. Fruitless action should not be done. Action causing pain in future should also not be done.

सविनाशंव्रजत्-याशुसूचकोऽशुचिरेवच॥ (४:७१)
One, who presses clay, cuts grass, eats nails, tells tales of others’ ignominy or is impure in body and mind, meets with destruction very fast. (4:71)

शयनस्थोनभुञ्जीतनपाणिस्थंनचासने॥ (४:७४)
Except in a wager, one should never play with dice even for fun. One should not carry his footwear himself in his hands. One should not eat while in bed, nor hold food in hand and eat it, nor place the plate on a seat and eat the food. (4:74)

नचनग्नःशयीतेहनचोच्छिष्टःक्वचिद्-व्रजेत्॥ (४:७५)
Food with gingili content should not be consumed after sunset. One should not sleep in nude condition. One should not go out anywhere after food without washing. (4:75)

आर्द्र-पादस्तुभुञ्जानोदीर्घं-आयुर्-अवाप्नुयात्॥ (४:७६)
One should eat food with feet wet. One should not go to bed with feet wet. One, who eats food with wet feet, will attain long life. (4:76)

नकार्पासास्थिनतुषान्-दीर्घं-आयुर्-जिजीविषुः॥ (४:७८)
A person desiring long life should not sit over hair, ashes, bones, broken earthen vessels, cotton seeds and chaff of foodgrains. (4:78)

नस्पृशेत्-चैतद्-उच्छिष्टोनचस्नायाद्-विनाततः॥ (४:८२)
One should not scratch his head with both hands, nor should one touch the head while eating or before washing after food. One should not take bath without washing the head (if healthy). (4:82)

शिरःस्नातश्चतैलेननाङ्गंकिञ्चिदपिस्पृशेत्॥ (४:८३)
One should not catch the hair or strike at the head of anybody. Having taken oil-bath, one should not touch any part of the body with oil. (4:83)

11. Virtuous Conduct

धर्ममूलंनिषेवेतसदाचारं-अतन्द्रितः॥ (४:१५५)
One should practise with full effort, virtuous conduct, which is the basis of dharma, as enunciated in Srutis (Vedas) and Smritis (Sastras), as applicable to him. (4:155)

आचाराद्-धनं-अक्षय्यं-आचारोहन्त्य्-अलक्षणम्॥ (४:१५६)
Good conduct bestows long life, desired progeny and inexhaustible wealth; it also destroys inauspicious signs. (4:156)

दुःखभागीचसततंव्याधितोऽल्पायुरेवच॥ (४:१५७)
A person of evil conduct is always condemned by the society. He meets with misery, disease and short life. (4:157)

श्रद्दधानोऽनसूयश्चशतंवर्षाणिजीवति॥ (४:१५८)
Even if one is devoid of all auspicious signs, if he has good conduct, reverential faith and is free from fault-finding and jealousy, he lives for a hundred years. (4:158)

यमान्-पतत्य्-अकुर्वाणोनियमान्-केवलान्-भजन्॥ (४:२०४)
A wise man should observe Yamas always, even if he fails to observe Niyamas.

(Yamas are ten:  compassion, forbearance, truth, non-violence, sense-control, absence of craving, meditation, peace of mind, sweetness of approach and straightforwardness.
Niyamas are ten: purity, sacrifice, austerity, charity, study of scriptures, continence, religious vow, abstinence from food, silence and ritual bath.)
If he observes only Niyamas and rejects Yamas, he falls down. (4:204)

यद्-यद्-आत्मवशंतुस्यात्-तत्-तत्-सेवेतयत्नतः॥ (४:१५९)
One should certainly avoid actions, which are subject to control of others. He should put in efforts to do such actions which are in his own control. (4:159)

एतद्-विद्यात्-समासेनलक्षणंसुख-दुःखयोः॥ (४:१६०)
Everything, which is under the control of others, is misery. Everything, which is under one’s own control, is happiness. This should be understood as the brief definition of misery and happiness. (4:160)

तत्-प्रयत्नेनकुर्वीतविपरीतंतुवर्जयेत्॥ (४:१६१)
In doing action, which gives inner satisfaction while doing, one should put in efforts. Other actions should be avoided. (This rule is for actions not laid down as obligatory in Sastras). (4:161)

द्वेषंदंभंचमानंचक्रोधंतैक्ष्ण्यंचवर्जयेत्॥ (४:१६३)
One should refrain from atheism (belief that God and Vedas do not exist), denunciation of Vedas, blasphemy to Gods, hatred, vanity, pride, anger and harshness. (4:163)

हिंसा-रतश्चयोनित्यंनेहासौसुखं-एधते॥ (४:१७०)
One, who is ever engaged in acts in transgression of dharma, whose only wealth is falsehood (who earns his living by testifying falsely in courts etc.) and who always harms others, does not reap any happiness in this world. (4:170)

अमित्रादपिसद्-वृत्तं-अमेध्यादपिकांचनम्॥ (२:२३९)
Nectar should be taken even from (associated) poison; wholesome words even from a child; good conduct even from an enemy; gold even from filthy object. (2:239)

बलवान्-इन्द्रिय-ग्रामोविद्वांसमपिकर्षति। (२:२१५)
One should not sit alone even with his mother, sister or daughter; the powerful group of sense-organs overpowers even wise persons. (2:215)

नदिवीन्द्रायुधंदृष्ट्वाकस्यचिद्-दर्शयेद्-बुधः॥ (४:५९)
One should not disturb a cow drinking water (or milk), nor get someone to disturb it by informing him. A wise man should not show rainbow in the sky to someone after having seen it. (4:59)

नोत्सङ्गेभक्षयेत्-भक्ष्यान्-नजातुस्यात्-कुतूहली॥ (४:६३)
No wasteful effort should be undertaken; water should not be drunk from joined palms; food should not be eaten by keeping it on lap; fruitless inquisitiveness should not be undertaken. (4:63)

उपानहौचवासश्चधृतं-अन्यैर्- नधारयेत्।
उपवीतं-अलंकारंस्रजंकरकमेवच॥ (४:६६)
One should not use footwear, clothes, sacred thread, ornaments, garland and water-pot used by others. (4:66)

गवांचयानंपृष्ठेनसर्वथैवविगर्हितम्॥ (४:७२)
One should not talk (spiritual or mundane) with pride, nor wear garland outside of proper occasion. Travelling on the back of cow is strictly prohibited. (4:72)

अधार्मिकंतस्करंचपरस्यैवचयोषितम्॥ (४:१३३)
One should avoid the company of enemy, associate of enemy, one who transgresses dharma, thief and others’ wives. (4:133)

यादृशंपुरुषस्येहपरदारोपसेवनम्॥ (४:१३४)
There is no sin in this world, which has the effect of reducing one’s life-span, as enjoying woman other than one’s own wife. (4:134)

अन्यत्रपुत्राच्-छिष्याद्वाशिष्ट्यर्थंताडयेत्-तुतौ॥ (४:१६४)
One should not raise a stick on or beat others with it in anger. However one can beat the son and disciple for disciplining them. (4:164)

नस्याद्-वाक्-चपलश्चैवनपरद्रोह-कर्म-धीः॥ (४:१७७)
One should not be rash in use of hands and feet (implying acquisition of unnecessary articles and useless travel), in use of eyes (looking at prohibited things) and in use of speech (vile speech). One should not be crooked in conduct and not bent upon actions with malice to others). (4:177)

तस्माद्-द्यूतंनसेवेतहास्यार्थं-अपिबुद्धिमान्॥ (९:२२७)
Gambling caused great enmity in times of yore. Hence a wise man should not take to gambling even for fun. (9:227)

तेनयायात्-सतांमार्गंतेनगच्छन्-नरिष्यते॥ (४:१७८)
One should follow the path adopted by noble persons including his fathers and grandfathers (when confronted with apparently conflicting rules of Sastras); by doing so he avoids trouble. (4:178)

तस्माद्-एतैर्-अधिक्षिप्तःसहेतासंज्वरःसदा॥ (४:१८५)
Domestic servants, who are like one’s own shadow and his daughter are deserving of kindness. Hence, even if he is disrespected by them, he should be tolerant and be free from any ill-feeling. (4:185)

श्रद्धाकृतेह्यक्षयेतेभवतःस्वागतैर्-धनैः॥ (४:२२६)
One should always perform actively Ishta (yagna, pooja etc.) and Purtha (well, road, garden etc.) karmas. These karmas, when done with faith and with money earned through right means, lead to inexhaustible merit. (4:226)

निनीषुःकुलं-उत्कर्षं-अधमान्-अधमांस्-त्यजेत्॥ (४:२४४)
One, desirous of leading his family towards higher merit, should establish his relations with nobler and nobler persons and discard the lowly ones. (4:244)

अहिंस्रोदम-दानाभ्यांजयेत्-स्वर्गंतथा-व्रतः।। (४:२४६)
One, who fulfils his mission with firmness, is soft in approach, tolerant, shunning persons of cruel conduct and non-violent and follows the vows of sense-control and charity, conquers Swarga. (4:246)

सपापकृत्तमोलोकेस्तेनआत्मा-पहारकः॥ (४:२५५)
One, who presents himself before noble persons as one different from what he actually is, is the worst sinner in the world and robber, having robbed his own self. (4:255)

अयज्वानांतुयद्-वित्तंआसुरस्वंतद्-उच्यते॥ (११:२०)
Wise persons recognize the wealth of those who habitually perform yagnas as godly. The wealth of those who never perform yagnas is stated to be demoniacal. (11:20)

12. Truthful Speech

प्रियंचनानृतंब्रूयाद्-एषधर्मःसनातनः॥ (४:१३८)
One should speak truth; the truth should also be pleasing. One should not speak truth, if it is not pleasing. Also one should not speak falsehood as it would be pleasing. This is eternal dharma. (4:138)

शुष्क-वैरंविवादंचनकुर्यात्-केनचित्-सह॥ (४:१३९)
One should communicate even unpleasant information through pleasing words. One should not enter into dry, fruitless and hostile debate with anyone. (4:139)

ययास्योद्विजतेवाचानालोक्यांतामुदीरयेत्॥ (२:१६१)
Though himself in misery, one should not utter harsh words, nor engage his intellect and action in harming others. He should utter words, which do not hurt others and do not become obstacles in attainment of Swarga etc. (2:161)

रूप-द्रव्य-विहीनांश्चजाति-हीनांश्चनाक्षिपेत्॥ (४:१४१)
One should not use insulting words against the handicapped - with less or more limbs, the uneducated, the elderly and those lacking in appearance, wealth and culture. (4:141)

तांस्तुयद्-स्तेनयेद्-वाचंससर्व-स्तेयकृन्-नरः॥ (४:२५६)
All meanings of words are bound by, rooted in and conveyed by the respective words. One, who steals those words (uses words, not intending to convey what they mean or, indulges in double-speak), has stolen everything. (4:256)

13. Charity

परितुष्टेनभावेनपात्रं-आसाद्य-शक्तितः॥ (४:२२७)
One should always perform the dharma of charity and Ishta (yagna, pooja etc.) and Purtha (well, road, garden etc.) dharmas to qualified and deserving persons with a sense of great happiness according to his capacity. (4:227)

उत्पत्स्यतेहितत्-पात्रंयत्-तारयतिसर्वतः॥ (४:२२८)
Approached by anyone for charity, one should give ungrudgingly as per his capacity. When the time comes, the recipient will appear and liberate him (from hell). (4:228)

मध्वापातोविषास्वादःसधर्म-प्रति-रूपकः॥ (११:९)
If one is intent on giving charity to others when his own kith and kin are living a life of misery, it looks outwardly like dharma, but not true dharma, just as something that appears like honey, but tastes like poison. (11:9)

सकृत्वाप्लवं-आत्मानंसंतारयतितावुभौ॥ (११:१९)
One, who takes the wealth of wicked persons and distributes it among virtuous persons, thus becomes a boat for both these parties to cross the mire of the world. (11:19)

तिल-प्रदःप्रजाम्-इष्टांदीपदस्-चक्षुर्-उत्तमम्॥ (४:२२९)
The donor of water attains satisfaction (of food and water); donor of food, inexhaustible happiness; donor of gingili, desired progeny; donor of lamp, eyes with superior vision. (4:229)

गृहदोऽग्र्याणिवेश्मानिरूप्यदोरूपं-उत्तमम्॥ (४:२३०)
The donor of land becomes master of landed property; donor of gold gets long life; donor of house, superior mansions; donor of silver, superior appearance. (4:230)

अनडुहःश्रियंपुष्टांगोदोब्रध्नम्यविष्टपम्॥ (४:२३१)
The donor of clothes attains Chandraloka; donor of horse, world of Asvini kumaras; donor of bullock gets plenty of wealth; donor of cow attains Suryaloka. (4:231)

धान्यदःशाश्वतंसौख्यंब्रह्मदो-ब्रह्म-सार्ष्टिदाम्॥ (४:२३२)
The donor of vehicle and bed gets good wife. Bestower of freedom from fear, lordship; donor of foodgrains, permanent comfort; teacher of Veda, status of Brahma. (4:232)

वार्य्-अन्न-गो-मही-वासस्-तिल-काञ्चन-सर्पिषाम्॥ (४:२३३)
Of all gifts including water, food, cow, land, clothes, gingili and ghee, gift of knowledge of Veda is of greatest merit. (4:233)

तत्-तत्-तेनैवभावेनप्राप्नोतिप्रति-पूजितः॥ (४:२३४)
With whatever attitude one donates articles, he is honoured with the same attitude and attains the fruit of his gift in his next life. (4:234)

तावुभौगच्छतःस्वर्गंनरकंतुविपर्यये॥ (४:२३५)
One who receives gift, duly honoured and one, who donates, duly honouring the recipient, both attain to Swarga; without due honour, both go to hell. (4:235)

सपर्यायेणयातीमान्-नरकान्-एकविंशतिम्॥ (४:८७)
One, who receives charity from a greedy and unethical ruler, attains to these twentyone Narakas in succession. (4:87)

नरकंकालसूत्रंचमहानरकमेवच॥ (४:८८)
The twentyone Narakas are: Tamisra, Andhatamisra, Maharourava, Rourava, Kalasutram, Mahanarakam; (4:88)

संहातंचसकाकोलंकुड्मलंप्रतिमूर्तिकम्॥ (४:८९)
Sanjivanam, Mahavichi, Tapanam, Sampratapanam, Samhata, Sakakola, Kudmala, Pratimurtika; (4:89)

असिपत्रेवनंचैवलोहदारकमेवच॥ (४:९०)
Lohasanku, Rujisham, Pantha, Salmali, river Vaitarani, Asipatra vana and Lohadaraka. (4:90)

सर्वतःप्रतिगृह्णीयान्-मध्वथाभय-दक्षिणाम्॥ (४:२४७)
Wood, water, roots, fruits, foodgrains, honey and offer of freedom from fear may be accepted from anybody. (4:247)

मेनेप्रजापतिर्-ग्राह्यं-अपिदुष्कृत-कर्मणः॥ (४:२४८)
Articles of gift, brought and placed before the recipient, when he had not sought the gift either directly or through somebody else, may be accepted even from an evil person; this is the opinion of Brahma. (4:248)

सर्वतःप्रतिगृह्णीयान्-नतुतृप्येत्-स्वयंततः॥ (४:२५१)
One may accept alms from anybody for the purpose of relieving the hunger of elders and dependents, worshipping Gods and serving guests; but he should not use the alms for himself. (4:251)

14. Non-violence

वृथा-पशुघ्नःप्राप्नोतिप्रेत्यजन्मनिजन्मनि॥ (५:३८)
One, who kills animals unnecessarily (for purpose not sanctioned in Vedas), is killed in birth after birth as many times as the number of hairs on the body of the killed animal. (5:38)

ससर्वस्यहित-प्रेप्सुःसुखं-अत्यन्तं-अश्नुते॥ (५:४६)
One, who desists from inflicting pain on animals by way of keeping them in bondage or killing them and is a universal well-wisher, attains immense happiness. (5:46)

नचप्राणि-वधःस्वर्ग्यस्-तस्मान्-मांसंविवर्जयेत्॥ (५:४८)
Meat can never be produced without killing animals. Killing animals does not lead one to Swarga. Hence meat should be eschewed. (5:48)

सलोकेप्रियतांयातिव्याधिभिश्चनपीड्यते॥ (५:५०)
One, who desists from eating meat like a devil in violation of Vedic injunctions, is liked in the world by all and does not suffer from diseases. (5:50)

संस्कर्ताचोपहर्ताचखादकश्चेतिघातकाः॥ (५:५१)
One who permits killing of animals, one who cuts the flesh into pieces, one who kills, one who sells, one who buys, one who cooks, one who serves and one who eats are all killers of the animal. (5:51)

मांसानिचनखादेद्-यस्-तयोःपुण्य-फलंसमम्।। (५:५३)
One who performs Aswamedha yagna every year for a hundred years and one who does not eat any meat, both earn the fruit of equal religious merit. (5:53)

एतन्-मांसस्यमांसत्वंप्रवदन्तिमनीषिणः॥ (५:५५)
The derivation of the word ‘मांस’ is given thus by the wise:The animal, whose flesh I eat here now, will eat me in the next world - ‘मांस:’(5:55)

15. Purity

वायुःकर्मा-र्क-कालौचशुद्धेःकर्तृणिदेहिनाम्॥ (५:१०५)
Knowledge, penance, fire, proper food, mud, mind, water, proper unguent, wind, karma (yagna etc.), Sun and time are purifying agents for humans. (5:105)

योऽर्थेशुचिर्हिसशुचिर्नमृद्-वारि-शुचिःशुचिः॥ (५:१०६)
Of all purities, purity of wealth (earning through just means) is the most important. One who maintains purity in wealth is indeed pure; not the one who maintains purity of body through mud and water. (5:106)

प्रच्छन्न-पापाजप्येनतपसावेद-वित्तमाः॥ (५:१०७)
The learned scholars attain purity through forgiveness; those who have engaged in prohibited acts, through charity; those who have committed sins stealthily, through chanting of mantras; scholars of Veda, through penance. (5:107)

अद्भिर्-गात्राणिशुद्ध्यन्तिमन: सत्येनशुद्ध्यति।
विद्या-तपोभ्यांभूतात्माबुद्धिर्-ज्ञानेनशुद्ध्यति।। (५:१०९)
The body is purified by water; the mind, by truth; the embodied self (jivatma), by learning and penance; the intellect, by true knowledge. (5:109)

भस्मना-द्भिर्-मृदाचैवशुद्धिर्-उक्तामनीषिभिः॥ (५:१११)
The wise say that glittering objects (like gold), gems and objects of stone are purified by application of ashes, water and mud. (5:111)

दैहिकानांमलानांचशुद्धिषुद्वादशस्वपि॥ (५:१३४)
To purify the body after passing stools and urine and also for cleaning in case of twelve bodily impurities, one should use mud and water as necessary. (5:135)

श्लेष्मा-श्रुदूषिकास्वेदोद्वादशैतेनृणांमलाः॥ (५:१३५)
The twelve bodily impurities are: fat, semen, blood, marrow, urine, stools, phlegm, wax of the ear, sputum, tears, mucus from the eye, sweat.

16. Control of Senses and Mind

संयमेयत्नं-आतिष्ठेद्-विद्वान्-यन्तेववाजिनाम्॥ (२:८८)
A wise person should try to control the sense-organs, moving among objects, which drag the sense-organs with them, like a good charioteer would control the horses. (2:88)

तानिसम्यक्-प्रवक्ष्यामियथावद्-अनुपूर्वशः॥ (२:८९)
I shall describe the eleven sesnse-organs in their proper order, as stated by previous scholars. (2:89)

पायू-पस्थंहस्त-पादंवाक्चैवदशमीस्मृता॥ (२:९०)
Ears, skin, eyes, tongue and nose are the (first) five sense-organs; the organ of excretion, the generative organ, hands, feet and speech are the (next) five sense-organs. There are thus ten sense-organs in all. (2:90)

कर्मे-न्द्रियाणिपञ्चैषांपाय्-वादीनिप्रचक्षते॥ (२:९१)
Of these, the first five - ears etc. - are the sense-organs of perception. The rest five - organ of excretion etc. - are the sense-organs of action.

यस्मिञ्जितेजितावेतौभवतःपञ्चकौगुणौ॥ (२:९२)
The eleventh is to be known as the mind (the internal sense - organ - Antahkarana), which is of the nature of the above two groups of five (propelling them). By conquering mind, the two groups of five sense-organs are conquered. (2:92)

संनियम्यतुतान्येवततःसिद्धिंनियच्छति॥ (२:९३)
By attaching to the senses (and objects), one attracts fault without doubt. By controlling them well, one attains perfection. (2:93)

हविषाकृष्णवर्त्मेवभूयएवाभिवर्धते॥ (२:९४)
By enjoying sense-pleasures, desire is never satisfied. On the other hand it goes on increasing like fire with oblations poured into it. (This is also a famous statement made by king Yayati after enjoying sense-pleasures for a full thousand years. The term ‘Krishna-vartma’ used for Fire here is interesting. It refers to the stream of smoke, which always accompanies fire. The implication is that like fire, enjoyment of sense-pleasures leaves the black dense smoke of desire behind.) (2:94)

प्रापणात्-सर्वकामानांपरित्यागोविशिष्यते॥ (२:९५)
On comparison of one, who attains all his objects of desire, with another, who renounces them totally, it is seen that sacrifice of all pleasures is superior to attaining them. (2:95)

विषयेषुप्रजुष्टानियथाज्ञानेननित्यशः॥ (२:९६)
By avoiding sense-objects, the sense-organs, which always tend to attach to them, cannot be controlled. They can be controlled only by the knowledge (of discrimination and the harm caused by enjoyment of sense-pleasures). (2:96)

नविप्र-दुष्ट-भावस्यसिद्धिंगच्छन्तिकर्हिचित्॥ (२:९७)
Study of Vedas, charity, yagnas, observance of regulations, penances etc. do not bring perfection (attainment of desirable goals) to one, who is given to erroneous attitude (of enjoyment of sense-pleasures). (2:97)

नहृष्यतिग्लायतिवासविज्ञेयोजितेन्द्रियः॥ (२:९८)
One is considered to have conquered the sense-organs, if he feels neither pleasure nor pain when the senses of hearing, touch, sight, eating and smell are employed (in favourable or unfavourable objects). (2:98)

तेनास्यक्षरतिप्रज्ञादृतेःपादादिवो-दकम्॥ (२:९९)
Even if any one among all the sense-organs leaks (i.e. gets attached to objects uncontrollably), the man’s alertness (of discrimination) leaks through it in the same way as water would leak through a hole in a leather container. (2:99)

सर्वान्-संसाधयेद्-अर्थान्-अक्षिण्वन्-योगतस्-तनुम्॥ (२:१००)
Controlling the group of sense-organs and also restraining the mind, one shall attain all Purusharthas (Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha), adopting proper means for not mortifying the body. (2:100)

17. Tapas (Austerity)

अमृतस्येवचा-कांक्षेद्-अवमानस्यसर्वदा॥ (२:१६२)
A wise one should always shun honour like poison and welcome insult like nectar. (2:162)

अतिप्रसक्तिंचैतेषांमनसासंनिवर्तयेत्॥ (४:१६)
One should not delight in being attached too much to sense-objects. By control of mind one should desist from too much of attachment. (4:16)

सुखंह्यवमत: शेतेसुखंचप्रतिबुध्यते।
सुखंचरतिलोकेऽस्मिन्-अवमन्ताविनश्यति॥ (२:१६३)
One, who has been disrespected, sleeps comfortably, wakes up comfortably and moves about in this world comfortably, whereas the one, who dishonoured him, perishes. (2:163)

तपसैवप्रपश्यन्तित्रैलोक्यंसचराचरम्॥ (११:२३६)
Rishis, having controlled their minds and consuming only fruits, roots and air, perceive through their austerity alone, all the three worlds including all movable and immovable objects. (11:236)

तपसैवप्रसिद्ध्यन्तितपस्तेषांहिसाधनम्॥ (११:२३७)
Through austerity alone, are attained medicines, freedom from disease and various divine conditions; austerity is the only means to them. (11:237)

सर्वंतुतपसासाध्यंतपोहिदुरतिक्रमम्॥ (११:२३८)
Whatever is difficult to cross, difficult to attain, difficult of access, difficult to do - all this is attained through austerity. Austerity is not capable of being defeated. (11:238)

तपसैवसुतप्तेनमुच्यन्तेकिल्बिषात्-ततः॥ (११:२३९)
Those who commit great sins and the remaining who indulge in prohibited acts are freed of their sins only through penance, well-practised.

तत्-सर्वंनिर्दहन्त्-याशुतपसैवतपोधनाः॥ (११:२४१)
Whatever sins people generally commit through their mind, speech and body, can all be burnt away quickly by ascetics (those whose only wealth is austerity) through penance. (11:241)

साम्नांवासरहस्यानांसर्व-पापैःप्रमुच्यते॥ (११:२६२)
By chanting with full concentration Rigveda, Yajurveda or Samaveda thrice with their esoteric parts (Upanishads), one is released of all sins. (11:262)

तथादुश्चरितंसर्वंवेदेत्रिवृतिमज्जति॥ (११:२६३)
Just as a clod of earth disappears when thrown in a big reservoir of water, all evil actions disappear on chanting Veda thrice. (11:263)

एषज्ञेयस्-त्रिवृद्-वेदोयोवेदैनंसवेदवित्॥ (११:२६४)
The knower (one who contemplates and is intent on Moksha) of threefold Vedas - Rig, Yajur and Sama, with their Brahmanas etc. - is indeed knower of Veda. (11:264)

सगुह्योऽन्यस्-त्रिवृद्-वेदोयस्तंवेदसवेदवित्॥ (११:२६५)
The knower (one who contemplates and is intent on Moksha) of the esoteric three-syllabled primeval mantra, Pranava (Omkara), in which are established the three Vedas, is indeed knower of Veda. (11:265)

18. Karmas and Fruits

कर्मजागतयोनॄणां-उत्तमा-धम-मध्यमाः॥ (१२:३)
Actions of people through mind, speech and body produce auspicious and inauspicious fruits. The fruits are superior, intermediate or lowly depending on karma. (12:3)

दशलक्षण-युक्तस्यमनोविद्यात्-प्रवर्तकम्॥ (१२:४)
All karmas of the three types (with superior, intermediate or lowly fruits) and originating from three sources (mind, speech and body) have ten characteristics; all karmas are initiated in the mind of the jiva. (12:4)

Note: Manu lists the ten characteristics in the following three slokas.

वितथा-भिनिवेशश्चत्रिविधंकर्ममानसम्॥ (१२:५)
Karmas of mind (bearing evil fruit) are of three types - thinking of grabbing others’ wealth; nurturing ill-will for others; attachment to false principles (like body is indeed the soul; there is no next world etc.). (12:5)

असंबद्ध-प्रलापश्चवाङ्मयंस्याच्-चतुर्विधम्। (१२:६)
Karmas of speech (bearing evil fruit) are of four types - harsh words; telling lies; backbiting of all kinds; irrelevant talk. (12:6)

पर-दारोपसेवाचशारीरंत्रिविधंस्मृतम्॥ (१२:७)
Karmas of mind (bearing evil fruit) are of three types - grabbing others’ wealth not gifted to him; violence perpetrated against rules; relations with others’ wife. (12:7)

वाचावाचाकृतंकर्मकायेनैवचकायिकम्॥ (१२:८)
The fruits of good and evil actions of mind have to be reaped through mind alone; similarly fruits of actions of speech through speech and, fruits of actions of body through body. (12:8)

वाचिकैःपक्षि-मृगतांमानसैर्-अन्त्यजातिताम्॥ (१२:९)
A person goes to immobile state (like stone) in the next birth as a result of evil actions of body; he becomes bird or animal following evil speech; he falls into uncultured lowly human births as a result of evil thinking. (12:9)

यस्यैतेनिहिताबुद्धौत्रिदण्डीतिसउच्यते॥ (१२:१०)
One, who keeps speech, mind and body (Vakdanda, manodanda and Kayadanda) under control of his intellect, is known as ‘Tridandi’ (Tridandi is a sanyasi, who holds three dandas or sticks, indicative of these three restraints). (12:10)

कामक्रोधौतुसंयम्यततःसिद्धिंप्रयच्छति॥ (१२:११)
Exercising these three restraints (dandas) in his relations with all humans and keeping desire and anger controlled, one attains fulfillment of objective of human birth, viz. Moksha. (12:11)

यःकरोतितुकर्माणिसभूतात्म्-ओच्यतेबुधैः॥ (१२:१२)
Kshetragna (Knower of field of action) is he who motivates Atma (Bhutatma) to perform actions. Bhutatma is the body complex, who performs actions, so say the learned persons. (12:12)

येनवेदयतेसर्वंसुखंदुःखंचजन्मसु॥ (१२:१३)
Jivatma is the inner controller, who is ever together with the body for all beings and who experiences all pleasures and pains in all births. (12:13)

उच्चावचेषुभूतेषुस्थितंतंव्याप्यतिष्ठतः॥ (१२:१४)
Those two, Mahan and Kshetragna, closely associated with the body of five elements, abide always in Paramatma, denoted by ‘That’ in Vedas, while in superior or inferior bodies. (12:14)

उच्चावचानिभूतानिसततंचेष्टयन्तियाः॥ (१२:१५)
From the body of that Paramatma, innumerable bodies of high and low jivas come out, who are always busy in different activities. (12:15)

शरीरंयातनार्थीयं-अन्यद्-उत्पद्यतेध्रुवम्॥ (१२:१६)
Evil persons, after leaving their present bodies, attain special bodies in next world (naraka) from the five great elements (space, air, fire, water and earth) for experiencing intense pain. (12:16)

तास्वेवभूतमात्रासुप्रलीयन्तेविभागशः॥ (१२:१७)
Through those bodies they suffer tortures inflicted by Yama and then they again merge into the same five elements. (12:17)

व्यपेत-कल्मषोऽभ्येतितावेवोभौमहौजसौ॥ (१२:१८)
These jivas, after experiencing the fruits of their virtuous or vicious actions born of attachment to sense-objects and, rid of their essential faults, attain the same splendrous two - Mahan and Paramatma. (12:18)

याभ्यांप्राप्नोतिसंपृक्तःप्रेत्येहचसुखासुखम्॥ (१२:१९)
Those two, Mahan and Paramatma, look into the jivas’ balance virtues and sins vigilantly; the jivas then experience pleasure and pain in this world and the next. (12:19)

तैरेवचावृतोभूतैःस्वर्गेसुखं-उपाश्नुते॥ (१२:२०)
If the jiva practises dharma mostly, with adharma in a small way, he enjoys pleasures after death in Swarga in his subtle body of the same five elements. (12:20)

तैर्-भूतैःसपरित्यक्तोयामीःप्राप्नोतियातनाः॥ (१२:२१)
If he practises adharma mostly, with a little of dharma, he experiences tortures in naraka in his special body, deserted by the five elements. (12:21)

तान्येवपञ्चभूतानिपुनरप्येतिभागशः॥ (१२:२२)
After experiencing the torture of Yama and thus being rid of sins, the jiva comes back to this world again in a body of the five elements in proportion. (Various beings on earth possess bodies of five elements in varying proportions and the jiva is born in an appropriate form suited to his balance karma). (12:22)

धर्मतोऽधर्मतश्चैवधर्मेदध्यात्-सदामनः॥ (१२:२३)
Perceiving in his mind these results of karmas of dharma and adharma, the jiva should always submit his mind to dharma. (12:23)

पापान्-संयान्तिसंसारान्-अविद्वांसोनराधमाः॥ (१२:५२)
By infatuation with sense objects and failure to observe dharma, ignorant humans of the worst kind reach miserable birth cycles. (12:52)

संप्राप्नुवन्तिदुःखानितासुतास्विहयोनिषु॥ (१२:७४)
By repeated performance of sinful acts, the persons of lesser intellect experience pain in the respective births they attain. (Depending on the intensity and frequency of sins committed, these persons fall into different miserable births). (12:74)

असिपत्रवनादीनिबन्धनच्छेदनानिच॥ (१२:७५)
These sinners go to hells of intense suffering like Tamisra, Asipatravana etc. and undergo tortures of bondage and piercing. (12:75)

करम्भ-वालुकातापान्-कुम्भीपाकांश्चदारुणान्॥ (१२:७६)
In various hells of torture like Kumbhipaka, they experience various kinds of misery including being eaten by animals like crows, owls etc. and burnt on beds of heated sand. (12:76)

शीतातपाभिघातांश्चविविधानिभयानिच॥ (१२:७७)
They are born always in various sub-human species of misery and experience onslaught of heat and cold and fears. (12:77)

बन्धनानिचकाष्ठानिपर-प्रेष्यत्वमेवच॥ (१२:७८)
They enter into different wombs again and again, go through the terrible pain of birth and experience different bondages including slavery of others. (12:78)

द्रव्यार्जनंचनाशंचमित्रामित्रस्यचार्जनम्॥ (१२:७९)
They experience separation from relatives and loving friends, life with evil persons, earning of wealth, loss of wealth and also getting friends as well as foes. (12:79)

क्लेशांश्चविविधांस्-तांस्-तान्-मृत्युमेवचदुर्जयम्॥ (१२:८०)
They further experience old age, which cannot be countered, suffer from diseases and pangs of different types (like hunger, thirst) and finally face death, which cannot be conquered. (12:80)

तादृशेनशरीरेणतत्तत्-फलं-उपाश्नुते॥ (१२:८१)
Whichever sentiment they adopt in different actions, they experience fruits of the same kind with suitable body of that type. (12:81)

19. Three Gunas (Attributes)

यैर्-व्याप्येमान्स्थितोभावान्-महान्-सर्वान्-अशेषतः॥ (१२:२४)
One should recognize the three attributes (gunas) in his mind - Satva (peace), rajas (passion) and tamas (inertia). These gunas pervade the entire creation without exception. (12:24)

सतदातद्-गुणप्रायंतंकरोतिशरीरिणम्॥ (१२:२५)
The guna, which is predominant in a particular body, propels the jiva mostly according to that guna. (12:25)

एतद्-व्याप्तिमद्-एतेषांसर्व-भूता-श्रितंवपुः॥ (१२:२६)
True knowledge is the characteristic of satva; ignorance of truth is tamas; attachment and repulsion are rajas.This body of five elements is ever pervaded by these gunas. (12:26)

प्रशान्तं-इवशुद्धाभंसत्वंतद्-उपधारयेत्॥ (१२:२७)
In the Atma, whatever little kind, peaceful and pure brightness is seen, know that as satvaguna. (12:27)

तद्-रजोप्रतीपंविद्यात्-सततंहारिदेहिनाम्॥ (१२:२८)
Whatever is accompanied by misery, is disagreeable to the Atma, but attractive to the senses should be recognized as rajoguna. (12:28)

अप्रतर्क्यं-अविज्ञेयंतमस्-तद्-उपधारयेत्॥ (१२:२९)
Whatever is full of delusion, unclear and purely at the level of sense objects, does not admit of logic and is ununderstandable, know that as tamoguna. (12:29)

धर्म-क्रिया-त्मचिन्ताचसात्विकंगुण-लक्षणम्।। (१२:३१)
Practice of Veda chanting, penance, true knowledge, purity (external and internal), sense control, right actions (sanctioned by Sastras) and contemplation of Self are the characteristics of Satvaguna. (12:31)

विषयोपसेवाचाजस्रंराजसंगुण-लक्षणम्।।  (१२:३२)
Keenness in commencing new activities, lack of courage, doing evil acts and continuous enjoyment of sense objects are the characteristics of Rajoguna. (12:32)

याचिष्णुताप्रमादश्चतामसंगुण-लक्षणम्॥ (१२:३३)
Greed, sleepiness, lack of steadfastness, cruelty, atheism, taking to livelihood different from the one prescribed, habit of begging and inadvertence are the characteristics of Tamoguna. (12:33)

सत्वस्यलक्षणंधर्मःश्रैष्ठ्यं-एषांयथोत्तरम्॥ (१२:३८)
The basic characteristic of Tamas is desire; that of Rajas is wealth; that of Satva is dharma. The latter is superior to the former in this order. (12:38)

तिर्यक्त्वंतामसानित्यं-इत्येषात्रिविधागतिः॥ (१२:४०)
Those established in Satvaguna attain to the status of Deva; Rajasic persons, humans; Tamasic persons, animal birth. This is the threefold path of humans (after death).

Note: Manu sub-divides the three basic characteristics of Satva, Rajas and Tamas into superior (uttama), medium (madhyama) and inferior (adhama); he then describes the types of births these nine categories attain on death.

20. Sins and Expiation

प्रसक्तश्चे-न्द्रियार्थेषुप्रायश्चित्तीयतेनरः॥ (११:४४)
One, who fails to perform prescribed actions and indulges in prohibited actions and remains attached to sensual attractions, must go through expiation. (11:44)

अकामत: कृतेपापेप्रायश्चित्तंविदुर्-बुधाः।
कामकार-कृतेऽप्य्-आहुर्-एकेश्रुति-निदर्शनात्॥ (११:४५)
If one commits sins unknowingly, wise persons recommend expiatory measures. Some persons say that even when sins are committed knowingly out of attachment to fruits, expiation is permitted in Vedas. (11:45)

ब्रह्महाक्षयरोगित्वंदौश्चर्म्यंगुरुतल्पगः॥ (११:४९)
One who steals gold is born with nails disfigured; drunkard gets black teeth; a killer of brahmana suffers from tuberculosis; one who has illicit relation with Guru’s wife acquires acute skin diseases. (11:49)

Note: These afflictions may occur in this life itself or future lives as per Manu.

धान्य-चौरोऽङ्ग-हीनत्वं-आतिरेक्यंतुमिश्रकः॥ (११:५०)
One who finds fault with others produces foul smell from his nose; backbiter, foul smell from mouth; thief of foodgrains becomes handicapped; adulterator has more limbs than normal. (11:50)

वस्त्र्-आपहारकःश्वैत्र्यंपङ्गुतां-अश्व-हारकः॥ (११:५१)
One who steals food suffers from dyspepsia; one, who learns stealthily without being taught directly by Guru, becomes dumb; stealer of clothes suffers from leucoderma; stealer of horse becomes lame. (11:51)

जड-मूका-न्ध-बहिराविकृता-कृतयस्-तथा॥ (११:५२)
Thus the sinners, condemned by the virtuous, are born in their next life as mentally retarded, dumb, blind, deaf and deformed. (11:52)

तेपतन्त्-यन्धतामिस्रेतेनपापेनकर्मणा॥ (४:१९७)
Those wise men, who are Baka-vratis (have characteristics of duck- selfish, injurious and wearing cloak of humility) and Marjara-lingis (who, like cats, put on cloak of followers of dharma, but injurious and intolerant of praise of others), fall into the hell of Andhatamisra owing to their pernicious deeds. (4:197)

अदत्तान्य्-उपभुञ्जानएनसःस्यात्-तुरीयभाक्॥ (४:२०२)
One, who enjoys a vehicle, bed, seat, well, garden and house without being permitted by the owner, shares one-fourth of the sins of the owner. (4:202)

निन्द्यैर्हिलक्षणैर्-युक्ताजायन्तेऽनिष्कृतैनसः॥ (११:५३)
Hence it is essential to take expiatory steps constantly for self-purification; those, who do not do it, are born with condemnable characteristics. (11:53)

महान्तिपातकान्य्-आहुःसंसर्गश्चापितैस्सह॥ (११:५४)
Five sins are said to be great: killing of a brahmana, consumption of liquor, stealing, illicit relation with Guru’s wife and, lastly, association with those who commit any of these four great sins. (11:54)

गुरोश्चालीक-निर्बन्धःसमानिब्रह्महत्यया॥ (११:५५)
Uttering falsehood for self-promotion, backbiting against somebody to the king and telling lies about Guru are equally sinful as killing of brahmana. (11:55)

गर्हितान्-आद्ययोर्-जग्धिःसुरापान-समानिषट्॥ (११:५६)
Forgetting Veda studied in the past, criticizing Veda (in support of anti-Vedic principles or religions), falsity in statement as witness, killing of a friend and eating prohibited materials and eating against vows undertaken are the six sins equal to consumption of liquor. (11:56)

भूमि-वज्र-मणीनांचरुक्म-स्तेय-समंस्मृतम्॥ (११:५७)
Misappropriating material deposited in trust, kidnapping man, stealing horse, silver, land, diamond and gems - these are equal (in sin) to stealing of gold. (11:57)

Note: Manu goes on to list sins equal to illicit relation with Guru’s wife and then sins of second grade called ‘Upapatakas’.

सूर्मींज्वलन्तींस्वाश्लिष्येन्-मृत्युनासविशुद्ध्यति॥ (११:१०३)
A person, who has had illicit relation with his Guru’s wife, should announce his sin publicly and lie down on a bed of red-hot iron; or, he should embrace a red-hot iron statue of woman till he dies; he is thus purified. (11:103)

Note: Manu lists such penance of self-mortification for other major sins also.

सतस्यैवव्रतंकुर्यात्-तत्-संसर्ग-विशुद्धये॥ (११:१८१)
Whoever keeps company of a sinner, he should go through the same expiatory measures as prescribed for the sinner for his own purification. (11:181)

तथातथात्वचेवा-हिस्-तेना-धर्मेणमुच्यते॥ (११:२२८)
As and when a person makes public his sin, he is freed from that adharma, like snake from its slough. (11:228)

तथातथाशरीरंतत्तेना-धर्मेणमुच्यते॥ (११:२२९)
As and when a person’s mind gets critical of his sinful action, his body (and jiva) gets freed from that adharma. (11:229)

नैवंकुर्यांपुनरितिनिवृत्यापूयतेतुसः॥ (११:२३०)
After committing a sin, if a person repents and vows not to repeat that sin, he is purified. (11:230)

मनो-वाङ्-मूर्तिभिर्-नित्यंशुभंकर्मसमाचरेत्॥ (११:२३१)
Considering thus the effects in the next world of actions performed now, one should always perform good deeds with his mind, speech and body. (11:231)

21. Ruler’s Qualities

अष्टानांलोकपालानांवपुर्-धारयतेनृपः॥ (५:९६)
A king’s form derives from Chandra, Agni, Surya, Vayu, Indra, Kubera, Varuna and Yama and the eight Lokapalas. (5:96)

कुलंदहतिराजाग्निःसपशु-द्रव्य-संचयम्॥ (७:९)
Fire burns only one person, who falls in it. However the fire (of wrath) of the king burns the entire family of the victim, together with his accumulated wealth of cattle and valuables. (7:9)

मृत्युश्चवसतिक्रोधेसर्व-तेजोमयोहिसः॥ (७:११)
Lakshmi (splendour) abides in the king’s grace; victory, in his valour; death, in his wrath; He is indeed the embodiment of all brilliance. (7:11)

आन्वीक्षिकींचात्मविद्यांवार्तारम्भांश्चलोकतः॥ (७:४३)
He should learn the three Vedas, the eternal rule of law, the science of logic and spiritual knowledge from knowers of Vedas and mundane pursuits from experts in those fields. (7:43)

जितेन्द्रियोहिशक्नोतिवशेस्थापयितुंप्रजाः॥ (७:४४)
He should put in efforts day and night in control of sense-organs. The king, who has his senses under control, is alone capable of controlling his subjects. (7:44)

व्यसनानिदुरन्तानिप्रयत्नेनविवर्जयेत्॥ (७:४५)
The following weaknesses,ten born of desire and eight born of anger, which are difficult to end, once allowed to sprout, should be discarded with effort. (7:45)

वियुज्यतेऽर्थ-धर्माभ्यांक्रोधजेष्व्-आत्मनैवतु॥ (७:४६)
The king, infatuated with desires, is separated from Artha and Dharma; when overcome by anger, he loses his very Self. (7:46)

तौर्यत्रिकंवृथाट्याचकामजोदशकोगणः॥ (७:४७)
The ten evils born of desire are: hunting, gambling, sleeping in day-time, unduly reviling others, women, wine, triple symphony of vocal music, instrumental music and dance, purposeless wandering. (7:47)

वाग्दण्डजंचपारुष्यंक्रोधजोऽपिगणोऽष्टकः॥ (७:४८)
The eight evils born of anger are: talking of imaginary follies of others, troubling the virtuous, malice, jealousy, finding fault with others, wrongful use of wealth, harshness of  speech, severity of punishment. (7:48)

तंयत्नेनजयेल्-लोभंतज्जावेताव्-उभौगणौ॥ (७:४९)
The wise have said that these two groups of evils (born of desire and anger) are rooted in greed; hence greed should be conquered with effort. (7:49)

एतत्-कष्टतमंविद्याच्-चतुष्कंकामदेगणे॥ (७:५०)
In the group of ten evils born of desire, the four causing maximum misery are: wine, gambling, women and hunting. (7:50)

क्रोधजेऽपिगणेविद्यात्-कष्टं-एतत्-त्रिकंसदा॥ (७:५१)
In the group of eight evils born of anger, the three causing maximum misery are: severe punishment, harsh speech and wrongful use of wealth. (7:51)

पूर्वंपूर्वंगुरुतरंविद्याद्-व्यसनं-आत्मवान्॥ (७:५२)
In the aforesaid group of seven prime evils (four born of desire and three born of anger), which are commonly found among kings, the former is to be understood by a wise king as more harmful than the latter in the order stated. (7:52)

22. Ruler and his Duties

सप्तप्रकृतयोह्येताःसप्ताङ्गंराज्यं-उच्यते॥ (९:२९४)
The king, ministers, city, kingdom, treasury, army and well-wishers - these are the seven limbs of state. (9:294)

अन्योन्य-गुण-वैशेष्यान्-नकिञ्चिद्-अतिरिच्यते॥ (९:२९६)
All these seven limbs of state are mutually supportive of one another, like the three sticks (Tridanda) of a Sanyasi and none is redundant. (9:296)

कर्मण्-यभ्युद्यतस्-त्रेताविचरंस्तुकृतंयुगम्॥ (९:३०२)
There is Kaliyuga when the king sleeps (is inactive) in ignorance or sloth; Dvaparayuga when he is awake (but does not follow dharma); Tretayuga when he is active in performing actions; Kritayuga when he moves about fully performing his actions as per dharma. (9:302)

चन्द्रस्य्-आग्नेःपृथिव्याश्चतेजोवृत्तंनृपश्चरेत्॥ (९:३०३)
The king should act with the splendour of Indra, Surya, Vayu, Yama, Varuna, Chandra, Agni and Prithvi. (9:303)

तथाभिवर्षेत्स्वंराष्ट्रंकामैर्-इन्द्र-व्रतंचरन्॥ (९:३०४)
Just as Indra pours rains abundantly in the four rainy months, the king should flood his nation with fulfillment of desires (of subjects), thus following the policy of Indra. (9:304)

तथाहरेत्-करंराष्ट्रान्-नित्यं-अर्क-व्रतंहितत्॥ (९:३०५)
Just as Surya draws water from earth by his rays in the remaining four months, the king should collect taxes from his subjects continuously (not harshly), thus following the policy of Surya. (9:305)

तथाचारैःप्रवेष्टव्यंव्रतं-एतद्धिमारुतम्॥ (९:३०६)
Just as Vayu enters all beings and moves about (as Prana), the king should make his entry everywhere through his spies, thus following the policy of Vayu. (9:306)

तथाराज्ञानियन्तव्याःप्रजास्-तद्धियम-व्रतम्॥ (९:३०७)
Just as Yama restrains beings at the appointed time irrespective of friend or foe, the king should restrain his subjects (without fear or favour), thus following the policy of Yama. (9:307)

तथापापान्-निगृह्णीयाद्-व्रतं-एतद्धिवारुणम्॥ (९:३०८)
Just as every sinner appears bound by the ropes of Varuna, the king should arrest and punish the sinners, following the policy of Varuna. (9:308)

तथाप्रकृतयोयस्मिन्-सचान्द्र-व्रतिकोनृपः॥ (९:३०९)
Just as people become happy on seeing the full Moon, they should feel the same happiness on seeing the king; the king then has followed the policy of Moon. (9:309)

दुष्ट-सामन्त-हिंस्रश्चतदाग्नेयंव्रतंस्मृतम्॥ (९:३१०)
The king should always subdue the sinners and evil-minded ministers and trouble-mongers with the power and brilliance of Agni, thus following the policy of Agni. (9:310)

तथासर्वाणिभूतानिबिभ्रतःपार्थिवंव्रतम्॥ (९:३११)
Just as Prithvi (Earth) supports all beings (animate and inanimate) equally, the king should support all the beings in his kingdom with equanimity, thus following the policy of Prithvi. (9:311)

स्वशक्तिंपरशक्तिंचनित्यंविद्यान्-महीपतिः॥ (९:२९८)
The king should always assess his own power and that of others (particularly enemies) by energetic use of his spies and collecting information through other actions (like watching trade route etc.). (9:298)

यथार्हतःसंप्रणयेन्-नरेष्व्-अन्यायवर्तिषु॥ (७:१६)
The king should direct his scepter (award punishment) (the scepter is the form of dharma), to persons who have committed crimes, considering place, time, power, education and scriptural injunctions thoroughly. (7:16)

असमीक्ष्यप्रणीतस्तुविनाशयतिसर्वतः॥ (७:१९)
That punishment, when awarded after scrupulous consideration, delights all subjects. If awarded without due examination, it causes all-round destruction. (7:19)

शूलेमत्स्यानिवापक्ष्यन्-दुर्बलान्-बलवत्तराः॥ (७:२०)
If the king does not decree due punishment to those who deserve it with due vigilance, the stronger people will wreak havoc on the weaker ones, like fish caught in the hook. (7:20)

दण्डस्यहिभयात्-सर्वंजगद्-भोगायकल्पते॥ (७:२२)
This entire world is controlled by punishment alone. Man, who is pure by nature, is rare indeed. It is only due to fear of punishment that the world (food, wealth etc.) is available for enjoyment. (7:22)

कामात्माविषमःक्षुद्रोदण्डेनैवनिहन्यते॥ (७:२७)
The king, who utilizes the scepter (punishment) properly, flourishes in all three Purusharthas (Dharma, Artha and Kama). On the other hand if the king is lustful, biased and mean-minded, he is destroyed by that very scepter. (7:27)

इङ्गिताकार-चेष्टज्ञंशुचिंदक्षंकुलोद्गतम्।। (७:६३)
The king should appoint emissary, who is master of all scriptures and sciences, who knows the art of unraveling the import of gestures, appearances and actions and who is pure, efficient and of cultured family. (7:63)

नृपतौकोश-राष्ट्रेचदूतेसन्धि-विपर्ययौ॥ (७:६५)
He should entrust the army with the military commander and ensure humility in use of the army. He should keep the treasury and national matters under his own control and entrust diplomacy of agreement and estrangement with emissary. (7:65)

रम्यमानत-सामन्तंस्वाजीव्यंदेशं-आवसेत्॥ (७:६९)
The king should make his subjects reside in a place which is agriculturally rich, inhabited mostly by respectable persons, free from diseases, attractive, where the neighbours are humble and where means of livelihood are available. (7:69)

स्याच्चाम्नायपरोलोकेवर्तेतपितृवन्-नृषु॥ (७:८०)
The king through his officials should collect annual tax from his subjects following the injunctions of sastras; his behavior with subjects should be like a father. (7:80)

दण्डेनैवप्रसह्यैतांश्-छनकैर्-वशं-आनयेत्॥ (७:१०८)
If his enemies are not brought under control by the first three means (Sama, conciliation, Bheda, split and Dana, gift), then force should be applied; the enemies should be overpowered by light and severe punishment in that order. (7:108)

भृत्याभवन्तिप्रायेणतेभ्योरक्षेद्-इमाःप्रजा: ॥ (७:१२३)
The police forces of the king are generally engaged in thieving others’ properties and in deceit. The king should protect the subjects from them. (7:123)

तेषांसर्वस्वं-आदायराजाकुर्यात्-प्रवासनम्॥ (७:१२४)
The king should confiscate the entire holdings of those officials, who take away the wealth of their own subordinates by wrong means and exile them out of his country. (7:124)

उच्छिन्दन्ह्य्-आत्मनोमूलं-आत्मानंतांश्चपीडयेत्॥ (७:१३९)
The king should not refrain from levying due tax on his subjects owing to a false sense of kindness, as that would cut his own roots (depletion of treasury, weakening of army etc.). Nor should he levy excessive tax due to greed, as that would cause misery to his own subjects. (7:139)

स्तेनानांनिग्रहाद्-अस्ययशोराष्ट्रंचवर्धते॥ (८:३०२)
The king should put in his best efforts in controlling and chastising thieves; control of thieves helps increase of the king’s fame as well as the development of the nation. (8:302)

सत्रंहिवर्धतेतस्यसदैव्-आभय-दक्षिणम्॥ (८:३०३)
That king, who confers fearlessness on his subjects, is always fit to be adored. His official life is like a continued yagna, wherein he always distributes ‘dakshina’ of freedom from fear to all. (8:303)

अधर्मादपिषड्-भागोभवत्यस्यह्यरक्षतः॥ (८:३०४)
The king, who protects his subjects in every way, receives one-sixth of the ‘dharma’ (merit) earned by them. Similarly he gets one-sixth of ‘Adharma’ (sin) earned by his subjects, if he fails to protect them. (8:304)

तस्यषड्-भाग-भाग्-राजासम्यग्-भवतिरक्षणात्॥ (८:३०५)
By protecting his subjects well, the king receives the merit of all their good actions like study (of scriptures), yagna performed, charity offered and worship done.

नसाहसिक-दण्डघ्नौसराजाशक्र-लोक-भाक्॥ (८:३८६)
The king, in whose kingdom there is no thief, no licentious man cohabiting others’ wives, no person of harsh speech, no person who commits heinous crime or attacks others with weapons, goes to the world of Indra. (8:386)

चिन्तयेद्-धर्म-कामा-र्थान्-सार्धंतैरेकएववा॥ (७:१५१)
He should ponder over Dharma, Artha and Kama during midday or midnight, when he is relaxed in mind and body, either in the company of his ministers, or alone. (7:151)

द्वैधीभावंसंश्रयंचषड्-गुणांश्-चिन्तयेत्-सदा॥ (७:१६०)
The king should always ponder over the six aspects of dealing with enemies: friendly treaty, maintenance of hostility, assault, indifference, division of army (for attack in steps), taking help of a mightier party. (7:160)

पराजयश्चसंग्रामेतस्माद्-युद्धंविवर्जयेत्॥ (७:१९९)
As victory and defeat are both seen to be uncertain in a war, the king should avoid war as far as possible. (7:199)

स्नानेप्रसाधनेचैवसर्वा-लंकारकेषुच॥ (७:२२०)
The king should be watchful with respect to his vehicle, bed, seat, food, bath, cosmetics and decorations. (7:220)

23. Justice by King

शल्यंचास्यनकृन्तन्तिविद्धास्-तत्रसभासदः॥ (८:१२)
In the court of justice, where Dharma is overpowered by Adharma and the judicial members do not cut off Adharma with sword, those very members will be attacked b Adharma. (8:12)

अब्रुवन्-विब्रुवन्वापिनरोभवतिकिल्बिषी॥ (८:१३)
One should not enter the court aimlessly; if he enters, he should speak the truth. If he keeps mum or speaks untruth, he incurs sin. (8:13)

हन्यतेप्रेक्षमाणानांहतास्-तत्रसभासदः॥ (८:१४)
If Dharma is overpowered by Adharma and truth by untruth before the eyes of the judicial members, those members perish.

पादःसभासदःसर्वान्-पादोराजानं-ऋच्छति॥ (८:१८)
When any injustice occurs, one-fourth of the sin goes to the perpetrator of Adharma; one-fourth to the witness in the box; one-fourth to all the judicial members and one-fourth to the king. (8:18)

एनोगच्छतिकर्तारंनिन्दार्होयत्रनिन्दते॥ (८:१९)
In the court where censurable action is censured, the king as well as the judicial members become free from sin. The sin attaches only to the one who commits the censurable act. (8:19)

स्वर-वर्णेङ्गित्-आकारैश्-चक्षुषाचेष्टितेनच॥ (८:२५)
The inner truth in the accused, the defendant and the witnesses should be ascertained by examining their exterior signs like changes in sound and colour (like turning black), gestures, changes in body (like sweating), eye movements and other acts.

यावत्सस्यात्-समावृत्तोयावच्चातीत-शैशवः॥ (८:२७)
The king should protect the property of a child till he comes back from Gurukula (after completing his studies) or he crosses the childhood stage (age of 16), whichever is later. (8:27)

संवाद्यरूप-संख्यादीन्-स्वामीतद्-द्रव्यं-अर्हति॥ (८:३१)
If anyone claims a lost property etc., he should be examined properly and questioned on the shape, number etc. relating to the lost property; if the response is satisfactory, the king should restore the property back to the claimant. (8:31)

वर्णंरूपंप्रमाणंचतत्समंदण्डं-अर्हति॥ (८:३२)
In case the claimant is unable to specify truly the place, time, colour, shape, dimensions etc. of the lost property, he should be treated as a criminal and levied a fine equal to the value of the lost property he claims. (8:32)

यांस्तत्रचौरान्-गृह्णीयात्-तान्राजेभेनघातयेत्॥ (८:३४)
If some lost property is recovered by the king’s officers, the king should keep it in safe custody. The king should get the thieves, from whom it was recovered, trampled by elephants to death. (8:34)

नचप्रापितं-अन्येनग्रसेद्-अर्थंकथंचन॥ (८:४३)
The king or his representative should not fictitiously create a case for getting money; nor should he dismiss a case presented by somebody for getting money by wrongful means. (8:43)

नयेत्-तथा-नुमानेनधर्मस्यनृपतिःपदम्।। (८:४४)
Just as a hunter traces the location of a deer by seeing the trail of blood, the king should find the bottom of dharma through inference. (8:44)

देशंरूपंचकालंचव्यवहारविधौस्थितः॥ (८:४५)
The king should weigh all aspects including truth, wealth, own self (fear of attaining naraka by wrong judgement), witnesses, place, shape, time and magnitude of crime. (8:45)

दापयेद्-धनिकस्य्-आर्थंदण्डलेशंचशक्तितः॥ (८:५१)
If the borrower denies and yet his borrowing has been proved, the king should order the borrower to pay and also punish him for deceit. (8:51)

यश्चा-धरोत्त्रान्-अर्थान्-विगीतान्-नावबुध्यते॥ (८:५३)
If a plaintiff mentions a place where the transaction took place and finally it is proved that the borrower could not have been present there; he issues inconsistent statements.. (8:53)

सम्यक्-प्रणिहितंचार्थंपृष्टःसन्-नाभिनन्दति।। (८:५४)
If the plaintiff contradicts his own previous statement; he fails to substantiate his point during cross-examination.. (8:54)

निरुच्यमानंप्रश्नंचनेच्छेद्-यश्चापिनिष्पतेत्॥ (८:५५)
If the plaintiff converses with the witnesses in an unexpected secluded corner; scoffs at being asked questions; flees from his place.. (8:55)

नचपूर्वापरंविद्यात्-तस्माद्-अर्थात्-सहीयते॥ (८:५६)
If he does not speak when questioned; does not explain what he has already stated; does not know the causes and effects and hence varies from his position.. (8:56)

धर्मस्थःकारणैर्-एतैर्-हीनंतमपिनिर्दिशेत्॥ (८:५७)
If he claims that there are witnesses, but, when asked to produce them, fails; the judge established in dharma should dismiss his claim in all the above cases. (8:57)

नचेत्-त्रिपक्षात्-प्रब्रूयाद्-धर्मंप्रतिपराजित : ॥ (८:५८)
If the plaintiff does not substantiate his claim, he should be imprisoned or fined (depending on the gravity of the crime). If the defendant does not submit his supporting statements of defence within three fortnights, he should be treated as having failed in dharma. (8:58)

तौनृपेणह्यधर्मज्ञौदाप्यौतद्-द्विगुणंदमम्॥ (८:५९)
If the borrower pleads that he has borrowed less than what the lender claims, or if the lender claims more than what the borrower borrowed, these two parties, who knowingly indulged in Adharma, should be fined double the difference. (8:59)

नदृष्टदोषाःकर्तव्यानव्याध्यार्तानदूषिताः॥ (८:६४)
Witnesses related monetarily to the plaintiff, his friends, his assistants, foes, diseased or convicted persons should not be allowed to testify as witness. (8:64)

नश्रमार्तोनकामार्तोनक्रुद्धोनापितस्करः॥ (८:६७)
A miserable, intoxicated, insane, suffering from hunger or thirst, extremely tired, lustful, angry person or thief should not be allowed to testify as witness. (8:67)

इहचानुत्तमांकीर्तिंवागेषाब्रह्मपूजिता॥ (८:८१)
A witness who testifies truth attains superior realms (like Brahmaloka) and unsurpassed fame in this world also, as truthful speech is adored even by Brahma. (8:84)

विवशःशतमाजातीस्-तस्मात्-साक्ष्यंवदेद्-ऋतम्॥ (८:८२)
A witness who testifies falsely is tied severely with ropes of Varuna (snakes) and, suffering from dropsy, is thrown into hells for one hundred births. Hence one should always speak truth while testifying as witness. (8:82)

तत्तत्-कार्यंनिवर्तेतकृतंचाप्यकृतंभवेत्॥ (८:११७)
In disputes where it is established that witnesses have spoken untruth, those cases should be reopened as if they were fresh cases, completely annulling all previous proceedings. (8:117)

अज्ञानाद्-बालभावाच्चसाक्ष्यंवितथं-उच्यते॥ (८:११८)
The statement of a witness motivated by greed, improper understanding, fear, friendship, lust, anger, ignorance and childishness is taken to be false. (8:118)

अयशोमहद्-आप्नोतिनरकंचैवगच्छति॥ (८:१२८)
If the king punishes innocent persons and fails to punish the guilty, he is subject to great infamy in this world and finally attains to hell. (8:128)

अदर्शयन्-सतंतस्यप्रयच्छेत्-स्वधनाद्-ऋणम्॥ (८:१५८)
If a guarantor fails to produce the borrower before the court, he should pay the debt out of his own funds. (8:158)

असंबद्ध-कृतश्चैवव्यवहारोनसिद्ध्यति॥ (८:१६३)
If a person, who is intoxicated, mad or grief-stricken, a servant, child or a very aged person enters into a transaction without the consent of his family members, the claim in such a case is not maintainable. (8:163)

दातव्यंबान्धवैस्-तत्-स्यात्-प्रविभक्तैरपिस्वतः॥ (८:१६६)
If a person borrows money in order to maintain his undivided family and dies before he repays, the survivors, even though partitioned and living separately, should clear the debt. (8:166)

नचासारंनचन्यूनंनदूरेणतिरोहितम्॥ (८:२०३)
The following commodities should not be allowed for sale: material mixed with a different (specially less valuable) one; material without essence; less in weight or quantity; that which cannot be seen properly due to distance or darkness or other obstacles. (8:203)

तथातथादमःकार्योहिंसायां-इतिधारणा॥ (८:२८५)
It is established that depending on the type of usefulness of the tree one cuts, the punishment should be meted out. (The fruit tree ranks highest, the flower tree next, followed by creepers, plants etc. and the last rank being of grass etc.)

यथायथामहद्-दुःखंदण्डंकुर्यात्-तथातथा॥ (८:२८६)
When one harms humans and animals physically, the punishment should vary with the intensity of misery caused to the victim. (8:286)

तत्तदेवहरेत्-तस्यप्रत्यादेशायपार्थिवः॥ (८:३३४)
Whatever limbs a thief uses in stealing something and in whatever ways he does it, the king should get those limbs cut off from his body in the same manner. (8:334)

प्रकाशंवाऽप्रकाशंवामन्युस्-तंमन्युं-ऋच्छति॥ (८:३५१)
There is no sin attached to the killer of one who commits heinous crime, whether he kills the criminal in the open or in secret; the anger of the criminal provokes the anger of the defender. (8:351)

उद्वेजन-करैर्-दण्डैश्-चिह्नयित्वाप्रवासवेत्॥ (८:३५२)
In the case of those who cohabit other people’s wives, the king should award punishment of severe torture, making repulsive marks on their body and exile them.

तांश्वभिःखादयेद्-राजासंस्थानेबहुसंस्थिते॥ (८:३७१)
In the case of woman, who disobeys her husband (and seeks other men’s company) out of pride in her relatives or her own qualities (like beauty etc.), the king should let dogs eat her in a public place in the presence of many. (9:371)

अभ्यादध्युश्चकाष्ठानितत्रदह्येतपापकृत्॥ (८:३७२)
A man, who is licentious, should be burnt on a bed of hot iron by heaping wood on top of him and setting fire. (8:372)

त्यजन्न-पतितान्-एतान्-राज्ञादण्ड्यःशतानिषट्॥ (८:३८९)
Nobody should abandon his mother, father, wife or son. One, who abandons any of them without any fault, should be fined six hundred ‘Panas’ (coins) by the king. (8:389)

शिफा-विदल-रज्ज्वाद्यैर्-विदध्यान्-नृपतिर्-दमम्॥ (९:२३०)
The king should, if required, punish even women, children and mad, aged, poor and diseased persons by use of whip, cane, rope etc. (9:230)

कृतंतद्-धर्मतोविद्यान्नतद्भूयोनिवर्तयेत्॥ (९:२३३)
The king should never take up for review whatever judgment already passed or whatever punishment decided in accordance with dharma. (9:233)

प्रकाशांश्चा-प्रकाशांश्चचारचक्षुर्-महीपतिः॥ (९:२५६)
There are two types of thieves, who steal others’ wealth: those who do it in the open and those who operate clandestinely; the king should learn about them through his spies, who are like his own eyes. (9:256)

सहोढंसोपकरणंघातयेद्-अविचारयन्॥ (९:२७०)
A virtuous king should not kill a thief without proper evidence of the stolen material etc; if he gets evidence of stolen material, the tool used etc., he should kill the thief without second thought. (9:270)

भाण्डावकाशदाश्चैवसर्वांस्-तानपिघातयेत्॥ (९:२७१)
In the villages also those who help the thieves by providing them food, shelter or instruments helpful in their crime, should all be heavily punished by the king. (9:271)

अभ्याघातेषुमध्यस्थाञ्-छिष्या-च्चौरानिवद्रुतम्॥ (९:२७२)
When those who have been appointed to protect the state (police etc.) and those who live in borders of the country connive with thieves, they should be punished quickly in like manner as thieves themselves. (9:272)

घातयेद्-विविधैर्-दण्डैर्-अरीणांचोपजापकान्॥ (९:२७५)
Those who steal from the royal treasury, work against the nation and communicate secretly with state’s enemies and increase the enmity should all be punished in different ways (depending on severity of the crime, various limbs of the body should be dismembered). (9:275)

तेषांछित्वानृपोहस्तौतीक्ष्णेशूलेनिवेशयेत्॥ (९:२७६)
The king should cut off the hands of those, who make openings in walls during night and commit theft and put them on sharp lance. (9:276)

द्वितीयेहस्त-चरणौतृतीयेवधं-अर्हति॥ (९:२७७)
The fingers of a pickpocket should be cut off during his arrest after his first offence; his hands and feet should be cut off during his second arrest; he should be killed if he is arrested for that offence for the third time. (9:277)

हस्त्य्-अश्व-रथ-हर्तॄंश्चहन्यादेवा-विचारयन्॥ (९:२८०)
Without second thought the king should kill those who break into and steal from state treasury or godown or temples, and those who steal elephants, horses, chariots etc. (9:280)

अमानुषेषुप्रथमोमानुषेषुतुमध्यमः॥ (९:२८४)
Fake doctors who go about treating patients should be punished; in case of treatment of animals the first level of punishment and, in case of humans, the middle level of punishment should be given.  (9:284)

दुःखितायस्यदृश्येरन्-विकृताःपापकारिणः॥ (९:२८८)
The king should erect prisons right close to the highway, so that the sinners in misery and in bad condition can be seen by others outside. (9:288)

द्वाराणांचैवभङ्त्तारंक्षिप्रमेवप्रवासयेत्॥ (९:२८९)
The king should exile from the country those who break into ramparts, fill in the trenches with muck and break the gates. (9:289)

24. Vanaprastha

मेध्य-वृक्षो-द्भवान्-यद्यात्-स्नेहांश्चफल-संभवान्॥ (६:१३)
The prescribed eatables in Vanaprastha stage: vegetables grown on earth or in water, flowers, roots and fruits from sacred trees (fit for yagnas) and fat derived from fruits. (6:13)

स्थाना-सनाभ्यांविहरेत्-सवनेषू-पयन्-नपः॥ (६:२२)
He should lie down on bare earth and stand on his toes or walk for a while on toes around the same place. He should take bath thrice a day. (6:22)

ग्रीष्मेपञ्च-तपास्तुस्याद्- वर्षास्-वभ्रा-वकाशिकः।
आर्द्र-वासास्तुहेमन्तेक्रमशोवर्धयंस्-तपः॥ (६:२३)
In summer he should be in the middle of five fires (four in four directions and fifth being Sun above). During rainy season he should be in the open. In winter he should wear wet clothes. He should intensify his penance gradually. (6:23)

शरणेष्-वममश्चैववृक्ष-मूल-निकेतनः॥ (६:२६)
He should make no efforts for bodily comforts (including tasty food), observe strict celibacy, sleep on bare earth, remain unattached to any shelter and live at the foot of tree. (6:26)

25. Sanyasa

नचेमंदेहं-आश्रित्यवैरंकुर्वीतकेनचित्॥ (६:४७)
A Sanyasi should tolerate even the extremely unpalatable utterances (of an adversary) and should not disrespect anyone. For the sake of this mortal coil (including mind and intellect), he should not develop enmity with anyone. (6:47)

आत्मनैवसहायेनसुखार्थीविचरेदिह॥ (६:४९)
He should always contemplate on Brahman, seated in conducive asanas, should have no expectations and desire in mundane objects (including food) and, supported by his own body and will, should move about in this world, desirous of attaining Liberation. (6:49)

ह्रियमाणानिविषयैर्-इन्द्रियाणिनिवर्तयेत्॥ (६:५९)
By taking spartan food and spending his time in a secluded place, he should bridle his sense-organs from indulging in objects. (6:59)

योनि-कोटि-सहस्रेषुसृतीश्चास्य्-आन्तरात्मनः॥ (६:६३)
He should contemplate on his jivatma leaving this (temporary) body, entering into a womb again and being born thousands of crores of times. (6:63)

26. Gnana

निष्कामंज्ञानपूर्वंतुनिवृत्तं-उपदिश्यते॥ (१२:८९)
Action performed with mundane or heavenly pleasures in view is known as ‘Pravritti’ karma (karma leading to repeated births); action performed without any desire in mind and accompanied by True knowledge is called ‘Nivritti’ karma (karma leading one away from cycle of births and towards Liberation). (12:89)

निवृत्तंसेवमानस्तुभूतान्य्-अत्येतिपञ्चवै॥ (१२:९०)
By performing ‘Pravritta’ karmas (of the meritorious dharmic type), one attains position equal to gods. By performing ‘Nivritta’ karmas, one goes beyond the five elements (and attains Liberation). (12:90)

समंपश्यन्-आत्मयाजीस्वाराज्यं-अधिगच्छति॥ (१२:९१)
One who perceives his own self in all beings and all beings in his own self, attains equanimity of vision and, by complete surrender to Atma, he attains the status of the Supreme. (12:91)

तथादहतिवेदज्ञःकर्मजंदोषं-आत्मनः॥ (१२:१०१)
Just as fire, which has attained strength, burns away even wet trees, the knower of Vedas burns away faults in himself arising during karma. (12:101)

त्रयंसुविदितंकार्यंधर्म-शुद्धिं-अभीप्सता॥ (१२:१०५)
One, who wishes for purity in dharmic acts undertaken by him, should establish the correct dharma through three authorities: direct knowledge, inference, and Sastras and different Agamas. (12:105)

एकाकीचिन्तयानोहिपरंश्रेयो-धिगच्छति॥ (४:२५८)
Sitting alone in a secluded place, one should always contemplate on his ultimate good. Such contemplation will lead him to the state of supreme beatitude. (4:258)

आत्माहिजनयत्य्-एषांकर्म-योगंशरीरिणाम्॥ (१२:११९)
Atma is indeed all gods; everything is seated in Atma. It is Atma, who creates the bond of jivas with actions. (12:119)

पक्ति-दृष्ट्योःपरंतेजःस्नेहऽपोगांचमूर्तिषु॥ (१२:१२०)
The Yogi should absorb the outer space in the space in his body; the outer air in the inner air which helps in his activities of touch etc.; the brilliance of Agni and Surya in his eyes; the outer waters in the waters in his body; the outer earth element in the solid part of his body. (12:120)

वाच्यग्निंमित्रं-उत्सर्गेप्रजनेचप्रजापतिम्॥ (१२:१२१)
The Yogi should absorb Chandra in his mind; directions in his ears; Vishnu in his feet; Hara in his strength; Agni in his speech (mouth); Mitra in his excretive organ; Prajapati in his generative organ. (12:121)

दर्शनेनविहीनस्तुसंसारंप्रतिपद्यते॥ (६:७४)
One who has attained Supreme Vision (Self-realisation) is not shackled by karmas. One who has failed to attain this vision is born in this world again and again. (6:74)

चर्मा-वनद्धंदुर्गन्धिपूर्णंमूत्र-पुरीषयोः॥ (६:७६)
रजस्वलं-अनित्यंचभूतावासं-इमंत्यजेत्॥ (६:७७)
One should shed all attachment to this body, built on pillars of bones, tendons connecting muscles with bones, smeared with flesh and blood, covered by skin, full of bad smell of urine and excreta, overpowered by old age and sorrow, home of various diseases, suffering from wants (hunger, thirst, cold, heat etc.), leading to rajoguna (action prompted by desire, anger, greed etc.), impermanent and made of the five elements. (6:76, 77)

विसृज्यध्यान-योगेनब्रह्माभ्येतिसनातनम्॥ (६:७९)
One should leave his good deeds with his friends and evil deeds with enemies and attain the eternal Brahman through the yoga of meditation. (The fruits of good and evil deeds do not accompany the Self-realised soul on his dropping the body, unlike in the case of ordinary humans; but they go respectively to his friends and foes). (6:79)

रुक्माभंस्वप्नधीगम्यंविद्यात्तंपुरुषंपरम्॥ (१२:१२२)
He should meditate on the Supreme Lord as the controller of all (including Indra, Surya et al), subtler than the subtlest (to perceive the Lord’s omnipresence), of the hue of gold and capable of perception in the subtle inner sense organ (Antahkarana). (12:122)

इन्द्रं-एकेपरेप्राणं-अपरेब्रह्मशाश्वतम्॥ (१२:१२३)
Some call the Supreme Lord as Agni; some as Manu and Prajapati; some as Indra; some as Prana and others as the Eternal Brahman. (12:123)

जन्म-वृद्धि-क्षयैर्-नित्यंसंसारयतिचक्रवत्॥ (१२:१२४)
This Paramatma pervades all beings in their bodies made of the five elements and rotates them continuously in the wheel of samsara of birth, growth and death. (12:124)

ससर्व-समतां-एत्यब्रह्माभ्येतिपरंपदम्॥ (१२:१२५)
One, who perceives Atma in all beings through his own Atma, attains equanimity in all creation and ultimately attains to the state of Supreme Brahman. (12:125)

Appendix: An Essay on Ten Fundamental Virtues

Society consists of individuals. As the individuals are, so the society is. Individual good leads to societal or public good. Hence all societies all over the world have enforced codes of morality, dos and don’ts on individuals. In Indian tradition, the term ‘Dharma’ denotes this code of conduct for individuals, while also pointing to its being the support of society. Mahabharata defines Dharma: “धारणात्धर्मइत्याहुःधर्मोधारयतिप्रजाः”- Dharma is so called because it supports the individual and the society. Yaksha Prasna in Mahabharata points to the need to follow the traditions of Dharma established by the leaders of society.

“There is no finality to intellectual reasoning. The Smritis are conflicting. No one sage’s view is authoritative. The principle of Dharma is hidden and subtle. The only way is to follow the way of great men.” Yaksha Prasna also highlights the supreme importance of adherence to Dharma.

“Dharma, when destroyed (not observed), destroys us. Dharma, when protected, protects us. Therefore I shall not abandon Dharma. Let not Dharma destroy us.”

As per our scriptures, Dharma is intertwined with Varna and Asrama. There is however a basic essential moral structure, a web of virtues, applicable compulsorily to each and every individual irrespective of Varna and Asrama. In fact it has been said that rituals observed in violation of these morality requirements do not bear the expected fruit. This mandatory set of morals is known by various names, Samanya Dharma, Sadharana Dharma, Atma guna, Seelam etc. Manu the great codifier of laws in his Manusmriti lists ten basic characteristics of Dharma.

धीर्विद्यासत्यं-अक्रोधोदशकंधर्मलक्षणम्॥“ (6:92)
“Steadfastness, forgiveness, self-restraint, non-stealing, purity, control of sense-organs, application of intellect, self-knowledge, truthfulness, freedom from anger – these constitute the tenfold aspects of virtue.” All Smritis, Itihasas and Puranas have referred to these basic virtues enshrined in the Vedas and expanded and expatiated on them. Manu’s list of ten virtues however is found to encompass beautifully the various expositions in the texts.


Man achieves nothing in his life if he does not practise with steadfastness the lofty principles he wishes to follow. Mere pedantic knowledge may push one up for a short time in the eyes of the public; but it is only steadfastness in conduct that will prevent him from going astray at critical times when his actions are put to test. All great souls have reached their goals only by firmly following the path of righteousness and not by giving in to temptations or by caring for the uninformed views of the public. When they were face to face with Bhagavan, they begged not for the fleeting wealth and fame of the world, but only for eternal Bhakti at His lotus feet. Prahlada was the only one in Hiranyakasipu’s vast kingdom to worship Narayana. Despite physical, mental and psychological torture of the worst kind, his faith in God did not waver even for a second, but only flourished further.

The term ‘Dhriti’, in addition to steadfastness, also means fortitude. The courage displayed by the young boy Prahlada in the most adverse circumstances is exemplary.  Similarly Meerabai in recent times not only bore all difficulties with fortitude, but her devotion to Krishna only increased. She even drank poison without batting an eyelid. In Bhagavad Gita, Krishna insists on ‘Dhriti’ to keep the mind, breath and sense-organs under control in order to achieve Unity with the Supreme.


We have to learn to forgive our worst enemies. Vedanta teaches that there is none who is inimical to us; it is only our past actions that come back to haunt us using the instrument of persons or circumstances which we perceive as inimical. Practice of forgiveness helps in widening of vision, leading to realization of oneness in the whole creation. ‘Kshama’ includes forbearance and compassion. Once Devas, men and Asuras went to Prajapati and requested Upadesa. Prajapati instructed Devas by uttering only one letter ‘द’. He repeated the same instruction to men and Asuras. The three groups on deliberation concluded that what Prajapati meant was ‘दया‘ for Asuras, ‘दानम्‘ for men and ‘दमः’ for Devas. These are the three qualities, which the groups lacked and were therefore instructed to cultivate. Compassion ‘Daya’ embraces ‘Danam’, charity also. Rama fought a bitter battle with Ravana. One day Ravana’s army including his own chariot and charioteer were all destroyed. He stood all alone in the battleground. Rama could have easily killed him at that time. But magnanimous as he was, Rama permitted Ravana to leave for the day, rest in his palace and return the next day fully armed. We find the same story repeating in the battle of Skanda with the Asura Surapadma. Saints have ever been forgiving. Once robbers attacked Ramana Maharshi’s Ashram in the night. Before decamping with the minor belongings of the ashram and the inmates, the robbers rained blows on the Maharshi, perhaps out of exasperation at not finding any valuables. Later the Maharshi told his disciples: “Devotees bring offerings like fruits to me. The robber-devotees offered me blows.” In our literature the role model for forbearance is Earth. The Tamil saint Tiruvalluvar says: ”Like the earth, which supports even those who cut it open, one should forgive those who insult him.”


The term ‘Dama’ also embraces ‘Sama’ here. Constant exposure to objects, combined with the onrush of Vasanas, latent tendencies, influences the mind. Speech and action follow accordingly. The mind needs to be under continuous surveillance and control. The insatiable desire for objects and pleasures has to be checked. There is a saying in Puranas:
“All the foodgrains, gold, cattle and women in the whole world are not adequate for even one man (to satisfy his desire). Thinking thus, one should control the mind.” Without control of desires for worldly objects, one cannot make any progress on the spiritual path; even his mundane life will be devoid of peace. Ramana Maharshi recounts a story from Yoga Vasishtam in this context. There was a mahout who was always very cruel with his elephant. One day as he was unfettering the elephant, the mahout slipped and fell to the ground. Here was a chance for the elephant to trample upon and kill the mahout. But the kind-hearted elephant spared his life and escaped into the forest. The wicked mahout, instead of feeling thankful to the elephant, felt bad that it had cheated him and run away. He located the elephant after a long search in the forest and dug a deep pit in that area. The elephant fell into the pit and died. The human mind is like the mahout in the story.

In view of his high religious merit and suitability King Nahusha was appointed Devendra in the latter’s absence. He became power-drunk and lusted after Indrani. On the advice of Indra, who was in hiding in a lotus stem in Manasarovar lake, Indrani cleverly asked Nahusha to come to her palace in a palanquin carried by the revered Saptarishis. Nahusha, blinded with lust, lost no time in ordering the very Sapatarishis, who had anointed him Devendra, to carry his palanquin. Sage Agastya, being dwarf, had difficulty in keeping pace with the other Rishis and this made Nahusha’s journey slow. An agitated Nahusha knocked the sage with his foot and cried ‘sarpa-sarpa’, meaning ‘quick-quick’. The sage cursed him to become a ‘sarpa’, snake. Immediately the king fell from Swarga on to earth in the form of a python. One has to constantly remember:
“आशाहिपरमंदुःखंनैराश्यंपरमंसुखम्”- Desire is supreme misery; detachment is the peak of happiness.


The term ‘Astheyam’ literally means non-stealing, but it connotes a much wider spectrum of virtues. It includes abstention from unlawful gain and, ultimately non-covetousness of possessions beyond one’s minimum essential needs. Uncontrolled desire leads in time to insatiable greed. A greedy man thinks nothing of violating laws and morality to get what he wants. Sastras do not discourage accumulation of wealth per se; but the means of acquisition has to be scrupulously fair. Sastras certainly prohibit ostentation and wasteful expenditure and encourage giving in charity to deserving persons. Charity helps in purification of mind and elimination of ‘Ahankara’ and ‘Mamakara’, the sense of doership and possessiveness. For this purpose Ishta and Poortha dharmas are highly recommended in our ancient texts. Ishta dharma refers to conducting Yagnas, Poojas, religious discourses etc. for the general well-being of the public. Poortha dharma covers provision of roads, temples, Annasatras, water supply etc. for public convenience. The kings of old were role models in performing these dharmas for the wealthy citizens to follow. Rama gave away the Vanara kingdom in Kishkindha to Sugriva and the Rakshasa kingdom in Lanka to Vibhishana. Rama never thought of annexing those kingdoms under his own rule. King Sivaji regularly placed all the lands won by him in battle at the feet of his master Samartha Ramadas. The Guru returned the lands to Sivaji and instructed him to rule righteously. In twentieth century Visvesvarayya, the Diwan of Mysore, had separate pens and ink-bottles for official and personal use.


Purity is threefold- in body, words and thoughts. Sastras emphasize bodily purity- bath, washing of hands, feet, mouth etc. - as it influences mental purity. Stress is also laid on purity of food and drink. Impure thoughts form the basis of impure words. One impure thought will generate a train of such thoughts. Chanakya says:
“Purity in words, control of sense-organs and mind, compassion towards all beings - all this constitutes the purity of those who want to reach the Supreme.” Purity comprises cleanliness, straightforwardness, frankness, innocence and freedom from envy, pride and malice. If we look closely at the stories of sages Viswamitra and Vasishtha, we find it was purity that made the difference between the two in the initial stages. After Viswamitra purified himself through further severe penances, he was declared a Brahmarishi. In Puranas, we find that the penances performed by Asuras were generally more intense than those of Devas. But Asuras never got rid of impurities. Hence though they came to wield immense powers through the boons they obtained, they had to finally bite the dust. In Mahabharata, in Yaksha Prasna, it transpires that four Pandavas lost their lives after drinking water from a pond. When the Yaksha asks Yudhishthira to choose one of the dead brothers with offer of restoration to life, Yudhishthira chose Nakula. Dharmaputra explained: ‘Bhima, Arjuna and I are the sons of mother Kunti. Nakula and Sahadeva are the sons of my step-mother Madri. If I survive among Kunti’s sons, let it be Nakula to continue Madri’s line.’ Such was the purity of Yudhishthira. Later when the five Pandavas and Draupadi started on their ascent to heaven, all fell on the way except Yudhishthira, who travelled to heaven in the chariot brought by Indra.

Control of sense-organs

In a famous verse in Vivekachudamani, Sankaracharya says:
“The deer, the elephant, the moth, the fish and the honey-bee - these five are annihilated because of their slavery to one or the other of the senses such as sound etc. What then is the condition of the man, who is attached to all these five?” If you do not control sense-organs, you cannot control temptations. Temptations and Vasanas, latent tendencies, strengthen each other. Temptations have the power to shake the mind and the intellect by their roots and lead them to destruction. One subject repeatedly highlighted in Bhagavad Gita and other Sastras is control of sense-organs. The rules of conduct laid down for various Asramas are founded on this virtue. These rules are meant to discipline the mind running after sense-organs. In the Puranas, all Asuras met their end because of their unbridled sense-organs. Ravana, Sumbha and Nisumbha were overcome by lust for women. Madhu, Kaitabha, Mahishasura, Hiranyaksha, Hiranyakasipu and Kamsa were all mad after power over kingdoms. In order to stress the level of difficulty in acquiring control of sense-organs, even sages like Kasyapa, Viswamitra, Narada and Markandeya in the distant past are shown as not immune to the temptations of Maya. Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa led an incredibly pious life in the recent nineteenth century. He treated his own wife, Sarada Devi as incarnation of Bhagavati. He performed ‘Shodasi’ Pooja to her. Saints like him rise above body-consciousness.


Man, unlike animals, is endowed with intellect, the faculty of discrimination between right and wrong. Though mind is only one and comprises only thoughts, it is considered in four functional parts - mind, intellect, chitta (memory) and Ahamkara (sense of ‘I’). Mind may come under the sway of transient emotions; it is for the intellect to control the mind and bring it on to the right path. Intellect grows through ‘swadhyaya’, study of scriptures, visits to sacred places and, above all, company of the virtuous and holy. Clarity of thinking and strong conviction are the hallmarks of a well developed intellect. Chitta is the storehouse of reference material, again thoughts, which the intellect draws upon. Sankaracharya is perhaps the greatest example of such an intellectual. He defeated all his opponents including advocates of Buddhism, Jainism and deviant forms of Hinduism like Kapalikas etc. through cogent, logical arguments. He fought Mandana Misra on ‘Purva Mimamsa’, the philosophy that placed undue emphasis on rituals without insisting on bhakti. The celebrated debate lasted twentyone days and nights at a stretch. Even in Upanishadic times, the debates of sages like Yagnavalkya, Ashtavakra et al are well known. The sixty three Saivite Nayanmar saints of Tamil Nadu defeated Jainism roundly even when kings had adopted those religions and in the face of strong opposition. Chanakya praises intellect:
“Where air and sun’s rays cannot enter, there the intellect of the wise always penetrates quickly.” Decisions should never be taken in haste. The intellect should be used to recollect Sastras and incidents from the lives of great savants for utilizing in the situation it currently faces. Application of intellect should lead to discrimination of the real and the unreal. Discrimination should lead to detachment.


“Vidya’ in the ordinary sense means knowledge of any subject. The reference here is to ‘Self-Knowledge’. Deep application of intellect should lead to thirst for self-knowledge, ‘तत्वज्ञान‘.  Once the intellect has sifted the eternal from the transient, interest on knowing about the changeless truth should grow. Upanishads declare: “याविद्यासाविमुक्तये” - “Knowledge is that which results in Mukti, Liberation.” As discrimination and detachment ripen, the aspirant starts seeing the entire creation as manifestation of God. He sees God as ‘सुहृत्सर्वभूतानाम्’- the well wisher of all beings. No one is his enemy now. He develops ‘समदर्शनम्’ - equanimity in outlook. He has lost ‘otherness’ completely. He eventually experiences the light of God in his own heart. He no longer needs any external support, as he is rooted in the Self. He does not care for pleasure and pain. Bodily and mental afflictions do not touch him. Ramana Maharshi underwent very painful surgery for sarcoma in his arm without any anesthesia. 

The scriptures recommend Sanyasa Ashrama as the most suitable for gaining Self-knowledge. Sankaracharya became a Sanyasi full of thirst for Knowledge at the age of eight. For a householder, to rise above family attachments is very tough. King Janaka is an oft-quoted exception. One day, he was listening to a lecture on Vedanta by sage Yagnavalkya. Eager to let the other students know of Janaka’s greatness, the Guru created an illusion of fire in the palace. All the students except Janaka left the class in fear and went to find out what had happened. Janaka was asked as to why as king he did not find it necessary to go and enquire. Janaka replied that the fire department would take care of the fire and that he was not bothered. He was more interested in the lecture on Vedanta. For Self-Knowledge Bhagavad Gita emphasizes “जन्ममृत्यु-जराव्याधि-दुःखदोषानुदर्शनम्” - continuous perception of misery in birth, death, old age and disease.


Upanishad says: “सत्यंवद“ - Speak the truth. In the Mahabharata, Bhishma says to Yudhishthira: “There is no duty higher than truth and no sin more dreadful than untruth. Indeed truth is the very root of righteousness. Therefore we should never tamper with truth. On one occasion the merits of truth and a thousand horse-sacrifices were weighed against each other in the balance. Truth proved the heavier of the two.”  Truth also means what is right in conduct, what is just in social relations and what is true in knowledge. Bhagavan is Truth. While speaking the truth, we have to guard against uttering disagreeable truth. Manu says: “One should always speak truth, but agreeable and wholesome. One should never speak truth that hurts or harms others. One should never speak untruth even if agreeable. This is eternal Dharma.” Tiruvalluvar says: “Lights that dispel external darkness are no lights. For the wise, truth, which dispels the inner darkness (ignorance), is alone light.” The colossal sacrifices made by Harischandra, Yudhishthira, Dasaratha et al in keeping the promises they made show the high place of truth in the moral order. Devi Bhagavatham recounts the story of an illiterate brahmana, Satyavrata, who, living in a forest, rigidly adhered to speaking the truth in all circumstances. In due course he came to be regarded as a sage. Once a pig, wounded by the arrows of a hunter, came into his Ashram. The hunter, who followed, enquired with the sage about the whereabouts of the pig. He entreated the sage to tell the truth as his family was suffering from pangs of hunger. The unlettered brahmana was in a moral dilemma –to stick to his unbroken vow of speaking the truth or to save the pig. At this time a miracle happened. Satyavrata was blessed all of a sudden by Devi with scholarship, poetry and wisdom. He burst out: “यापश्यतिनसाब्रूतेयाब्रूतेसानपश्यति” - “The one that sees (eye) does not speak; the one that speaks (mouth) does not see.” Satyavrata thought it was his higher dharma to save a life rather than stick to dry truth. Satyavrata’s statement has deep spiritual significance - experience of the Supreme is beyond words. One who has seen Bhagavan by himself, i.e. experienced Bhagavan cannot describe his experience in words. One who describes it in words has not experienced Bhagavan.

Freedom from anger

Bhagavad Gita, tracing the genesis of anger, says that it is unfulfilled desire that causes anger. A desire, once fulfilled, yields place to the next desire in an unending chain. Desires never vanish. Hence most times desires are bound to remain unsatisfied. The stage is thus set for anger to walk in. As a consequence we will remain angry most of the time. Counting God’s numberless mercies enjoyed by us and constant prayer to Him to bless us with peace of mind are the only positive ways of getting rid of anger. Tiruvalluvar says: For protecting oneself one has to keep anger away; if not, anger will destroy him. Bhartruhari says in his Nitisatakam:
“There is no real friend for kings consumed by anger. Fire, when touched, burns even the one who offers oblations”. Once Buddha was moving from house to house for alms. One householder not only refused alms, but also spoke angrily to Buddha. Buddha responded: “If a householder gives alms to a beggar, who refuses to accept the food, to whom does the food belong?” The householder replied: “Of course it belongs to the householder only.” Buddha said: “If I refuse to accept the harsh words of abuse you hurled at me, then they will come back to you!” Sant Eknath demonstrated in his life the great quality of absence of anger. Once when he was returning from bath in the river, a man deputed by a person jealous of him, spat on him. Eknath did not react. He went back to the river and took bath again. The man on the riverbank spat again. The Sant went back to the river for bath. This was repeated a hundred times. The offending man could not believe that Eknath could be so patient. He fell at the feet of the Sant and sought forgiveness. Eknath responded: “If you had not spat, I would have taken bath in this holy river only once. Now since you spat repeatedly a hundred times, I got the rare opportunity of bathing a hundred times in the river. I am indeed thankful to you.”

Let us digest and try to adopt the above ten great virtues enumerated by Manu in our life. May Bhagavan’s blessings be with us.

॥ ऒं तत् सत् ब्रह्मार्पणमस्तु ॥