Tharpanam - Iyengars

Tharpanam - Iyengars
[Oblations to the Manes]
Compiled by P. R. Ramachander

Introduction

Tharpanam means "That offering which satisfies". But what we mean by the word Tharpanam is the offering of water mixed with gingelly to the manes (dead ancestors). Though we have several ancestors, this offering is addressed to three generations of father, grandfather and great grandfather along with their wives in our family and maternal grandfather, his father and grandfather along with their wives in our mothers birth family. Only those whose father is dead are eligible to do Tharpanam. If maternal grandfather is alive Tharpanam should not be done for his family but restricted to our family.

All the manes are supposed by our religion to live in the Pithru loka for some time and either be reborn as any being or go to lokas like deva loka, Vaikunta etc or even attain salvation by getting mixed with god. The pithru loka is populated by three group of pithru devas viz, Vasu, Rudra and Adhithya. These devas receive our oblations and make it reach to our manes wherever they are and in whichever form they are. The pithru loka is supposed to be on the unseen side of the moon. This portion gets exposed to sun on the new moon days. It is according to our concept lunch time for the people populating the pithru loka. These pithrus, since they have left the world are solely dependent on only their progeny to feed them. This feeding is done through Tharpanam. It is believed that if Tharpanam is not done out Pithru devas will curse us so that we may not have male descendents to offer tharpanam to us.

There are several type of tharpanams:
1. Gunda tharpanam - the tharpanam which is done in the first ten days of death.
2. Brahma yagna tharpanam - This is the oblation supposed to be done daily to the devas, rishis and pithrus.
3. Parheni tharpanam - this is the tharpanam which is supposed to be done on the next day after annual sraddha. This at present is being done after sraddha on the same day, because the priest does not have time to come the next day. Here the tharpanam is offered only to ones pithru varga (paternal side)
4. The regular tharpanam which is supposed to be done on all amavasyas. Four Month beginnings viz mesha, karkidaga, thula and makara and eclipses. Our books have asked us to perform tharpanam on 96 days in a year but this is not being done nowadays. Several acharyas have codified the method of tharpanam. Some of them are Apasthabha, Bodhayana and Drahyayana. What is given below is the manthras and method of the Apasthabha sutra of Yajur veda. There is slight differences in the sankalpam among Iyers and Iyengars. The version followed by both groups of Sri Vaishnavas viz., Thenkalai and Vadakalai are given here. It is understood that the tharpanam for rik vedis is almost similar but that for Sama Vedis is different. There is also differences brought about by local practice and family tradition. People are advised to follow their traditions strictly. They have precedence over what is written down here. For example in many families tharpanam is done without wearing Thiruman but there are certain families who do tharpanam wearing it. Some people do avahanams of Pithrus on two koorchas. Some on one koorcha and some on spread durbhas.

There are several rules regarding tharpanam though many of them are not being followed by most of the people. They are:
1. On the day of Tharpanam, till tharpanam is completed we are not supposed to drink/eat anything.
2. On the day of tharpanam, the daily rituals like Sandhya vandhana have to be first performed. Then before tharpanam one more bath has to be taken.
3. Wet cloth should not be worn during tharpanam nor is it right to wear cloth which was washed a day before and dried. The cloth has to be made wet the same day and dried. Pure white silk cloth can also be worn, but wearing this silk cloth you should not have eaten any food. If wet cloth is not dry, it should be seven times shaken dry in wind before wearing it.
4. Except the tharpanam during eclipse all other tharpanams are to be done after 12 noon. Considering the difficulty, our law givers have agreed that it can be done after 8.30 AM.
5. As mentioned earlier nothing should be eaten or drunk before performance of Tharpanam.
6. Oblations should be done with hand full of water and not drops or spoon full of water.
7. The water should be poured out using the space between the thumb and the four fingers.
8. Every time a pinch of black til has to be taken. Care should be taken not to take it using the thumb and the index finger.
9. Pithru tharpanam should always be done with poonal hanging from the right shoulder to the left side of the body.
10. The pavithram for pithru tharpanam should be made out of three durbha and the koorcham should be made of 7 or 9 durbhas.
11. We should preferably sit on seat made of durbha(durbhasanam) while doing tharpanam and in its absence put few durbhas on the place we are going to sit,
12. Silver vessels are prescribed for used during tharpanam. If not available copper vessels can be used. Under no circumstance should steel or other metal vessels are to be used.
13. Tharpanam should be done facing east or south. It is believed that it either should be done in our homes or in public holy places like shore of the river, sea active you happen to do it in the place belonging to someone else. We are supposed to compensate the owner of the property.
14. If Amavasya and the first of the month in which tharpanam has to be performed comes on the same day, then tharpanam for the sankramanam(first of the month) should be done.

Tharpanam

1. Perform Achamanam
Take minute quantities of water (just sufficient to soak one grain of black gram) three times in the right hand and take it with the following manthra.
Om Achyuthaya nama
Om Ananthaya nama
Om Govindaya nama
Then
Touch with thumb both cheeks saying kesava - Narayana
Touch with ring finger both eyes saying Madhava - Govinda
Touch with the first finger both sides of nose saying Vishno - Madhusoodana
Touch with little finger both ears saying Trivikrama - Vamana
Touch with the middle finger both shoulders saying Sreedhara - Hrishi kesa
Touch with all fingers the belly button saying Padmanabha
Touch with all fingers the head saying Damodara

A: For Sri Vaaishnavas of Vada Kalai
2. Do Pranayamam.
Hold both Nostrils with Thumb and the little and third finger of the hands and recite the following Manthra:
Om Bhoo
Om Bhuva
Ogum Suva
Om Maha
Om Jana
Om Thapa
Ogum Sathyam
Om Tatsa vithur varenyam Bargo devasya dhi mahi dhiyo yona prachodayath
Om Apa
Jyothj rasa
Amrutham brahma
Bhoorbuvasuvarom
Touch the ears three times saying
Om, Om, Om

3. Chant the following Manthras:
1. Srimad venkata nadarya kavi kargika kesari
Vedanthacharya varyo me sanni datham sada hruthi
2. Gurubhya tad gurubyascha namo vaga made mahe,
Vruni mahe cha tatrath you dampathi jagatham pathi
3. Swasesha bhoodeth mayaa sweeyai sarva parichadai,
Vidahthum preethamath manam deva prakramade swayam
4. Shuklam baradaram vishnum sasi varnam chadur bhjam
Prasanna vadanam dyayeth sarva vigno upa santhaye
5. Yasyad viratha vakthradhya parishadya para satham,
Vignam nignanthi vishvaksenam tham asraye.

B. For Sri Vaishnavas of Then Kalai:
2. Do Pranayamam.
Hold both Nostrils with Thumb and the little and third finger of the hands and recite the following Manthra:
Om Bhoo
Om Bhuva
Ogum Suva
Om Maha
Om Jana
Om Thapa
Ogum Sathyam
Om Tatsa vithur varenyam Bargo devasya dhi mahi dhiyo yona prachodayath
Om Apa
Jyothj rasa
Amrutham brahma
Bhoorbuvasuvarom
Touch the ears three times saying
Om, Om, Om

3. Chant the following Manthras:
1. Shuklam baradaram vishnum sasi varnam chadur bhjam
Prasanna vadanam dyayeth sarva vigno upa santhaye
2. Yasyad viratha vakthradhya parishadya para satham,
Vignam nignanthi vishvaksenam tham asraye

WHAT FOLLOWS IS COMMON TO THENKALAI AND VADAKALAI.

Adya Sri Bhagavatha maha purushasya Vishnor Agnaya pravarthamanasya Adhya Brahmana Dweethiya parardhe Swetha Varaha kalpe Vaivaswatha manvanthare ashta vimsathi thame kali yuge prathame padhe,jambu dweepe, Bharatha varshe, Bharatha Khande, Mero Dakshine Parswe, Sakabdhe asmin varthamane vyvaharike Prabhavadeenam sashtya samvatsaranam madhye (name of the year)* Nama samvatsare, (dakshina / uttara ayane, (name of the season) rithou, (name of the month in Sanskrit) mase, (Krishna/shukla) pakshe, Adhya (Name of the thidhi-moon phase) Punya thithou (name of the day in Sanskrit) vasra yukthayam (name of the star in Sanskrit) nakshatra yukthayam Shubha yoga - Shubha karana, Evam guna viseshana visishtayam asyam (Name of the thidhi) Punya thithou,
(Change the position of poonal from left shoulder to right shoulder (LEFT MODE)
(Your Gothram) Gothranam (Names of father, grandfather, great grandfather)** Sarmanam, Vasu-Rudra-adithya swaroopanam asmad Pithru - Pithamaha-Pithru Pithamahanam, (your Gothram) Gothraa (Names of mother. Grandmother, great grandmother)*** Namnee, Vasu-Rudra-Adithya swaroopa Asmad Mathru**** - pithamahi-Prapithamahischa, (Your maternal grandfather's gothram) gothraanam (names of maternal grandfather, his father and his grandfather) Sarmanam vasu - rudra - adithya swaroopanam asmad mathamaha, mathru pithamaha, mathru prapithamahanam, (Your maternal grandfather's gothram) gothraa (Names of maternal grandmother, maternal great grandmother, Grandmother of maternal grandfather) Namnee, vasu-rudra - adithya swaroopa asmad mathamahi***** - mathru pithamahi, mathru prapithamahinam Ubhaya vamsa pithrunaam akshayya thripthyartham amavasya****** punya kale Thila tharpanam karishye.
(throw away the Durbha (only) held round the fingers along with Pavithram. Change position of poonal to the left shoulder (usual mode), touch water with finger, change position of poonal to right shoulder (left mode)

* Refer to Panchangam (almanac) for the names or get the particulars. For Sanskrit names refer at the end of compilation.
** It is recommended that you substitute these names in various places and take a print out for your use. Contact family elders if you do not know this information.
*** Names of grandmother, great grandmother, Fathers great grandmother if mother is alive
**** In case mother is alive, this would be pithamahi-prapithamahi-pithruprapithamahischa
***** In case mother?s mother is alive, this would be mathamahasya mathu-pithamahi-prapithamahischa
****** Mesharavi punya kale for tharpanam done on Mesha sankramam (chittirai-makaram first) Karkadaga ravi punya kale (for tharpanam done during adi-Karkidaga Sankramam (Adi first), Thula ravi punya kale for tharpanam done during thula masam first (Iyppasi first), makara ravi punya kale for tharpanam done on makara sankramam (Thai first), Suryoparaga punya kale for tharpanam done during solar eclipse, Somoparaga punyakale for tharpanam done during Lunar eclipse and In case of Paraheni tharpanam done after Sraddham, "Purvedya maya krutha mathru pithru prathyabdhika sradhangam thila tharpanam karishye. Please note in case of paraheni tharpanam, the offering (tharpanam) is made to only paternal side pithrus.

Arrangement of Koorcham [in some families they only use one koorcham]
East - Pithru Varga Koorcham
North South - Mathamaha varga koorcham
Durbha Durbha - West

5. Avahanam for Pithru Varga (Fathers side)*
Wear the poonal in the left mode, take little ellu (black gingelly) and along with water keep on the Koorcha meant for Pithru varga while chanting the following manthras:
a. Aayatha pithara somya gambhirai padhibhi poorvai prajamasmabhyam dadhatho rayim cha deergayuthwam cha satha saaradam cha.
b. Om bhorbuvaswarom
c. Asmin koorche (Your Gothra) gothran (Father's, grandfather's and great grandfather's name) sarmana vasu Rudra adithya swaroopan asmad pithru-pithamaha-pithrupithamahaan (Your Gothra) gothraa (Names of mother, grandmother, great grandmother) namnee vasu Rudra adithya swaroopa asmad mathru**, pithamahi-pithrupithamahischa dyayami avahayami.

* People using only one koorcha, please do avahanam chanting "Asmin koorche vargodhaya pithroon dhyayami avahayami".
** In case mother is alive, this would be pithamahi-prapithamahi-pithruprapithamahischa

6. Asanam for Pithru Vargam
Chanting the manthra below place gingelly on the koorcha
a. Sakrudacchinnam barhirurnna mrudhu,
Syonam pithrubhyasthwa baramyaham
Asmin taseedanthu me pithara somyaa,
Pithamahaa prapithamahaaschaanugai saha.
b. Pithru-pithamaha,pithru pithamahanam mathru* - pithamahi - prapithamahinaam cha idam asanam, thiladhi sakalaradhanai swarchidham

*In case mother is alive, this would be pithamahi-prapithamahi-pithruprapithamahischa

7. Avahanam for Mathamaha Varga (maternal grandfathers side)
Wearing the poonal in the left mode, take little ellu (black gingelly) and along with water keep on the Koorcha meant for mathru varga while chanting the following manthras:
a. Aayatha mathu pithara somya gambhirai padhibhi poorvai prajamasmabhyam dadhatho rayim cha deergayathwam cha satha saaradam cha.
b. Om bhorbuvaswarom
c. Asmin koorche (Maternal grandfather's gothra) gothran (Names of maternal grandfather, maternal great grandfather and grandfather of maternal grandfather) sarmana vasu Rudra adithya swaroopan asmad mathamaha-mathru pithamaha-mathru prapithamaha (maternal grandfather's gothra) gothraa (Names of maternal grandmother, maternal great grandmother, grandmother of maternal grandfather) namnee vasu Rudra adithya swaroopa asmad mathamahi* - mathru pithamahi-mathru prapithamahischa dyayami avahayami.

* In case mother?s mother is alive, this would be mathamahasya mathu-pithamahi-prapithamahischa

8. Asanam for Mathru Vargam
Chanting the manthra below place gingelly on the mathru varga koorcha
a. Sakrudacchinnam barhirurnna mrudhu,
Syonam pithrubhyasthwa baramyaham
Asmin taseedanthu me pithara somyaa,
Pithamahaa prapithamahaaschaanugai saha.
b. Mathamaha-mathru pithamaha-mathru prapitha mahaanaam, Mathamahi-mathru pithamahi-mathru prapithamahischa idam asanam, thiladhi sakalaradhanai swarchidham

9. Pithru Varga Tharpanam
Offer tharpanam with hand full of water mixed with black ellu on the koorcham for Pithru vargam after each manthra
a. Pithru tharpanam (Oblation to father)
i. Udheerathamvara uthparasa,
Unmadhyama pithara somyasa
Asum ya eeyuravyaka ruthagna
Sthene avanthu pitharo harveshu,
(Your gothram) Gothran (Father's name),
Sarmana vasu roopan mama pithrun swadha namastharpayami.
ii. Angeeraso na pitharo navagwa,
Adharvano byagava somyaasa,
Thesham vayugum sumathou yagniyanaa mapi
Badre soumanase syama
(Your gothram) Gothraan (Father's name),
Sarmana vasu roopan mama pithrun swadha namas tharpayami.
iii. Aa yaanthu na pithara somyaso agni
shwatha* prathibhir deva yanai
asmin yagne swadhaya maadhayanthwadhi bruvantha** they avanthasman,
(Your Gothram) gothraan (Fathers name),
sarmana vasu roopan mama pithrun swadha namas tharpayami.

* Some books say "pitharo manoja vaso agnishwatha"
** Some books say "madantho adhi bruvanthu"

b. Pithamaha tharpanam (oblation to grandfather)
i. Oorjam vahanthiramrutham grutham paya keelalam
Parisrutham swadha sdha tharpatatha me pithroon,
(your gothram) Gothraan (Grandfathers name),
Sarmana Rudra roopan mama pithaamahaan swadha namas tharpayami.
ii. Pithrubhya swaadhavibhya swadha nama
pithamahebhya swadhavibhya swadha nama
Prapithamahebhya swadhavibhya swadha nama
(Your gothram) Gothraan (Grandfather's name),
Sarmana Rudra roopan mama pitha mahaan swadha namas tharpayami.
iii. Ye cheha pitharo ye cha neha,
Yagscha vidmayagm u cha na pravidma,
Agne thaan veththa yadi the jathaveda
Sthaya praththagm swadhaya madanthu
(Your gothram) Gothraan (Grandfather's name) ?
Sarmana rudra roopan mama pithamahaan swadha namastharpayami

c. Prapithamaha tharpanam(oblations to great grandfather)
i. Madhu vaathaa ruthaayathe madhu ksharanthi sindhava
maadweer na santhwashadhi
(Your Gothram) Gothraan (Great grandfather's name),
Sarmana adithya roopaan mama prapithamahan swadha namas tharpayami.
ii. Madhu nakthamuthoshasi madu math parthivagam
raja madhu dhourasthu na pitha
(Your gothram) Gothraan (great grandfather's name),
Sarmana adithya roopan mama prapithamahaan swadha namas tharpayami
iii. Madhumanno vanaspathir madhu magma asthu soorya,
Maadweer gavo bavanthu na
(Your gothra) Gothraan (great grandfather's name),
Sarmana adhithya roopan mama prapithamahaan swadha namas tharpayami.

d. Mathru tharpanam* (Oblations to mother)
i. (Your gothra) Gothraa (mother's name)
Namnee vasu roopa mama mathu swadha namastharpayami
ii. (Your Gothra) Gothraa (Mother's name)
Namnee vasu roopa mama mathu swadha namastharpayami
iii. (Your Gothra) (Gothraa (Mother's name)
Namnee vasu roopa mama mathu swadha namastharpayami

* If mother is alive instead of mathru tharpanam perform pithamahi tharpanam. In the manthras replace mathu with pithamahi.

e. Pithamahi tharpanam* (Oblations to paternal grandmother)
i. (Your Gothra) Gothraa (Grandmother's name)
Namnee Rudra roopa mama pithamahi swadha namastharpayami
ii. (Your Gothra) Gothraa (Grandmother's name)
Namnee Rudra roopa mama pithamahi swadha namastharpayami
iii. (Your gothra) Gothraa (Grandmother's name)
Namnee Rudra roopa mama pithamahi swadha namastharpayami

* If mother is alive instead of pithamahi tharpanam perform prapithamahi tharpanam. In the manthras replace pithamahi with prapithamahi

f. Prapithamahi tharpanam* (Oblations to paternal great grandmother)
i. (Your Gothra). Gothraa (Great grandmother's name)
Namnee adithya roopa mama prapithamahi swadha namastharpayami
ii. (Your Gothra) Gothraa (Great Grandmother's name)
Namnee adithya roopa mama prapithamahi swadha namastharpayami
iii. (Your Gothra) Gothraa (Great Grandmother's name)
Namnee adithya roopa mama prapithamahi swadha namastharpayami

* If mother is alive instead of prapithamahi tharpanam perform pithru prapithamahi tharpanam. In the manthras replace prapitha mahi with pithru prapithamahi.

10. Jnaatha Jnatha Pithru Varge Tharpanam (Oblation to unknown manes of paternal sides)
a. Jnaatha jnatha pithroon swadha namas tharpayami
b. Jnaatha jnatha pithroon swadha namas tharpayami
c. Jnaatha jnatha pithroon swadha namas tharpayami
Oorjam vahantheeramrutham grutham paya keelalam parisrutham swadha stha tharpayatha me pithroon trupyatha thrupyatha thrupyatha.

11. Mathamaha Varga Tharpanam (oblations to ancestors of maternal grandfather)
Offer tharpanam with hand full of water mixed with black ellu on the koorcham for Pithru vargam after each manthra
a. Matha maha tharpanam(Oblation to maternal grandfather)
i. Udheerathamvara uthparasa,
Unmadhyama pithara somyasa
Asum ya eeyuravyaka ruthagna
Sthene avanthu pitharo harveshu
(Maternal grandfather's Gothra) gothran (Maternal grandfather's name),
Sarmana vasu roopan mama matha mahaan swadha namastharpayami.
ii. Angeeraso na pitharo navagwa,
Adharvano byagava somyaasa,
Thesham vayugum sumathou yagniyanaa mapi
Badre soumanase syama
(Maternal grandfather's Gothra) gothran (Maternal grandfather's name)
Sarmana vasu roopan mama matha mahaan swadha namas tharpayami.
iii. Aa yaanthu na pithara somyaso agni
shwatha prathibhir deva yanai
asmin yagne swadhaya madhayanthwadhi bruvantha the avanthasman,
(Maternal grandfather's Gothra) gothran (Maternal grandfather's name),sarmana vasu roopan mama matha mahaan swadha namas tharpayami.

b. Mathru pitha maha tharpanam (oblation to grandfather of mother)
i. Oorjam vahanthiramrutham grutham paya keelalam
Parisrutham swadha sdha tharpayatha me pithroon,
(Maternal grandfather's Gothra) gothran (Maternal great grandfather's name)
Sarmana Rudra roopan mama mathu pithaamahaan swadha namas tharpayami.
ii. Pithrubhya swaadhavibhya swadha nama
pithamahebhya swadhavibhya swadha nama
Prapithamahebhya swadhavibhya swadha nama
(Maternal grandfather's Gothra) gothran (Maternal great grandfather's name)
Sarmana Rudra roopan mama mathu pitha mahaan swadha namas tharpayami.
iii. Ye cheha pitharo ye cha neha,
Yagscha vidmayagm u cha na pravidma,
Agne thaan veththa yadi the jathaveda
Sthaya praththagm swadhaya madanthu
(Maternal grandfather's Gothra) gothran (Maternal great grandfather's name)
Sarmana rudra roopan mama mathu pithamahaan swadha namastharpayami

c. Mathu Prapithamaha tharpanam(oblations to great grandfather of mother)
i. Madhu vaathaa ruthaayathe madhu ksharanthi sindhava
maadweer na santhwashadhi
(Maternal grandfather's Gothra) gothran (Maternal grandfather's grandfather'sname)
Sarmana adithya roopaan mama mathu prapithamahan swadha namas tharpayami.
ii. Madhu nakthamuthoshasi madu math parthivagam
raja madhu dhourasthu na pitha
(Maternal grandfather's Gothra) gothran (Maternal grandfather's grandfather'sname)
Sarmana adithya roopan mama mathu prapithamahaan swadha namas tharpayami
iii. Madhumanno vanaspathir madhu magma asthu soorya,
Maadweer gavo bavanthu na
(Maternal grandfather's Gothra) gothran (Maternal grandfather's grandfather'sname)
Sarmana adhithya roopan mama mathu prapithamahaan swadha namas tharpayami.

d. Mathamahi tharpanam* (Oblations to maternal grandmother)
i. (Maternal grandfather's gothra) gothraa (Maternal grandmother's name)
Namnee vasu roopa mama mathamahi swadha namastharpayami
ii. (Maternal grandfather's gothra) gothraa (Maternal grandmother's name)
Namnee vasu roopa mama mathamahi swadha namastharpayami
iii. (Maternal grandfather's gothra) gothraa (Maternal grandmother's name)
Namnee vasu roopa mama mathamahi swadha namastharpayami

* If maternal grandmother is alive instead of matha mahi tharpanam perform matha mahasya mathu tharpanam. In the manthras replace mathamahi with mathamahasya mathu.

e. Mathru Pithamahi tharpanam* (Oblations to grandmother of mother)
i. (Maternal grandfather's gothra) gothraa (Maternal great grandmother's name)
Namnee Rudra roopa mama mathu pithamahi swadha namastharpayami
ii. (Maternal grandfather's gothra) gothraa (Maternal great grandmother's name)
Namnee Rudra roopa mama mathu pithamahi swadha namastharpayami
iii. (Maternal grandfather's gothra) gothraa (Maternal grandmother's name)
Namnee Rudra roopa mama mathu pithamahi swadha namastharpayami

* If maternal grandmother is alive instead of mathu pithamahi tharpanam perform matha mahasya pithamahi tharpanam. In the manthras replace mathu pithamahi with matha mahasya pithamahi

f. Mathu Prapithamahi tharpanam* (Oblations to great grandmother of mother)
i. (Maternal grandfather's gothra) gothraa (Maternal grandfather's grandmother's name)
Namnee adithya roopa mama mathu prapithamahi swadha namastharpayami
ii. (Maternal grandfather's gothra) gothraa (Maternal grandfather's grandmother's name). .
Namnee adithya roopa mama mathu prapithamahi swadha namastharpayami
iii. (Maternal grandfather's gothra) gothraa (Maternal grandfather's grandmother's name). .
Namnee adithya roopa mama mathu prapithamahi swadha namastharpayami

* If maternal grandmother is alive instead of mathu prapithamahi tharpanam perform mathamahasya prapithamahi tharpanam. In the manthras replace prapitha mahi with matha mahasya prapithamahi.

12. Jnaatha Jnatha Matha Maha Varga Tharpanam (Oblation to unknown manes of maternal grandfather side)
a. Jnaatha jnatha mathu pithroon swadha namas tharpayami
b. Jnaatha jnatha mathu pithroon swadha namas tharpayami
c. Jnaatha jnatha mathu pithroon swadha namas tharpayami
Oorjam vahantheeramratham grutham paya keelalam parisrutham swadha stha tharpayatha me mathu pithroon trupyatha thrupyatha thrupyatha.

13. Pradhakshinam
Change poonal to usual pattern from left shoulder
(Chant and rotate in the same place clock wise)
Devathabhya pithrubhyascha maha yogibhya eva cha
Nama swaadhai swaahayai nithyameva namo nama.
Some versions ask us to chant this Manthra for Pradakshinam:
Namo va pitharo rasaya,
Namo va pithara sushmaya,
Namo va pitharo jeevaya,
Namo va pitharo swadhayai.
Namo va pitharo manyave,
Namo va pitharo ghoraya,
Pitharo namo vo ya ethasmin lokestha,
Yushmagusthe nuye asmin loke,
Manthenu ya ethasmin lokesya,
Yuyyanthesham vasishta bhooyastha,
Asmin loke ahanthesham vasishto bhooyasam.

14. Namaskaram (Salutations)
Change poonal to the left side pattern from right shoulder
Recite with folded hands
Pithru-Pithamaha-Prapthamahebhyo nama
Mathru - pitha mahi - prapithamahebhyo nama*
Mathamaha -mathru pithamaha-mathru prapithamahebhyo nama.
Mathamahi-Mathu pithamahi=mathu prapathamaheebhyo nama.**
Some versions ask us to chant this Manthra for Namaskaram:
Uthishtatha pithara pretha soora yamasya pantha ma na vetha puranam,
Dathadhaasmasu dravinam yachcha badhra prano bruthad bhagha dhan devatha.
Change Poonal to usual mode from left shoulder
Recite with folded hands:
Devathhabhya pithrubhyascha maha yogibhya eva cha
Nama swaadhayai swahaayai nithya meva namo nama.

* If mother is alive recite Pithamahi-prapithamahi-pithru prapapitha maheebhyo nama
** If maternal grandmother is alive then Mathamahasya mathu-mathamahasya pithamahi-matha mahasya prapithamaheebhyo nama.

15. Udwasanam*
Change Poonal to left mode i. e from right shoulder
a. Aayatha pithara somya gambhirai pradhibhi poorvai prajamasmabhyam dadhatho rayim cha deergayathwam cha satha saaradam cha.
b. Om bhorbuvaswarom
c. Asmad koorchat (Your gothram) gothran (Names of father, grandfather, great grandfather) sarmana vasu Rudra adithya swaroopan asmad pithru-pithamaha-pithrupithamahaan (Your gothram) gothraa (Names of mother, grandmother and great grandmother) namnee vasu Rudra adithya swaroopa asmad mathru**, pithamahi-pithrupithamahischa yada sthanam prathishtapayami. Shobhanarthe kshemaya punaragamanaya cha.
d. Aayatha mathu pithara somya gambhirai pradhibhi poorvai prajamasmabhyam dadhatho rayim cha deergayathwam cha satha saaradam cha.
e. Om bhorbuvaswarom
f, Asmin koorche(maternal grandfather's gothra) gothran (Names of maternal grandfather, maternal great grandfather and his father) sarmana vasu Rudra adithya swaroopan asmad mathamaha-mathru pithamaha-mathru prapithamaha (Maternal grandfather's gothra) gothraa (Names of maternal grandmother, maternal great grandmother, grandmother of maternal grandfather) namnee vasu Rudra adithya swaroopa asmad mathamahi*** -mathru pithamahi-mathru prapithamahischa yadasthanam prathishtapayami. Shobanarthe kshemaaya punaragamanaya cha
* People doing tharpanam on one koorcham chant "Asmad koorchat vargodhaya pithrun yadastanam prathishtapayami."
** In case mother is alive, this would be pithamahi-prapithamahi-pithruprapithamahischa
*** In case mother's mother is alive, this would be mathamahasya mathu-pithamahi-prapithamahischa

16. Sarva Tharpanam (General oblations)
Change poonal to left shoulder (usual), remove Pavithram, keep it in the ear, do Aachamanam, Wear the Pavithram, change poonal to right shoulder,Untie the Koorchs, Take them in hand and along with water and gingelly do a single Tharpanam chanting
Yesham na matha na pitha na bandhu na anya gothreena the sarve trupthimayanthu mayoth srushtai kusodhakai*
Trupyatha, Trupyatha, Trupyatha
Remove pavithram, untie and throw it away, change poonal to right shoulder and touch the water.

* Some books say "Yesham na matha na pitha na mithra gnanthi bandhawa" and some others say "yesham na pitha na bratha na puthro na anya gothrina"

17. Brahmarpanam
Offer a hand full of water chanting.
Om Tat sat Brahmarpanamasthu
Do Aachamanam.


Summary Meaning in English of various Manthras used in Tharpanam

1. Aachamanam
This is a preliminary purification ceremony. Gods Achutha, Anantha and Govinda are saluted and then the self is purified by chanting the twelve names of Vishnu.

2. Dhyanam (Vadagalai)
This is a prayer to the God Ganapathi who is supposed to remove all obstacles on our way in performance of any rite, in this case, Tharpanam.
i. I keep always in my mind the devotees of the Lord of the venkata mountain as my religious teacher.
ii. With all my attention I bow before that teacher of teachers who are the first mother and father of this world.
iii. I keep my mind on him who lies on the Adhi Sesha attended by Bhoo devi and Lakshmi.
iv. I meditate on the dark coloured Vishnu who has four hands and wears white silk and is always gracefully happy.
v. I bow before Vishwaksena so that what I am starting is completed without problems.

2. Dhyanam (Thenkalai)
i. I meditate on the dark coloured Vishnu who has four hands and wears white silk and is always gracefully happy.
ii. I bow before Vishwaksena so that what I am starting is completed without problems.

3. Pranayamam
This manthra is a guide to a breathing exercise as also a prayer. While chanting Om bhoo,Om Bhuva, Ogum Suva, Om Maha, om jana, om thapa, ogum satyam we are supposed to keep the left nostril closed and inhale through the right nostril. While chanting, "Om tat sa vithur varenyam bargo devasya dhee mahi, dhi yo yona prachothayad", we are supposed to close both nostrils and hold the breath. After this the left nostril is opened and air exhaled till the end of the manthra.
Hindus believed that that there were six holy worlds above the earth. These along with earth are remembered in the first part. These worlds are bhooloka, bhuvarloka, suvarloka, maharloka, janaloka, thapaloka and satya loka. The second part is the famous Gayathri manthram. It means
"I meditate on that savitha (the sun or the enlightenment within ourselves) which helps us in our though process, that god which is within me and that all engulfing power."
Or
"I meditate on the most holy shining aspect of that God, who helps in brightening our thought process. "
Then the third part means "Om is water, it is the light, it is the earth which gives the food, it is the air which supports life, and it is the ether which is spread all around. It is also the holy seven worlds. "
By touching the nose the hands are supposed to get polluted and this is removed by touching the ears thrice.

4. Sankalpam
This is a preliminary rite in every Vedic action. We tell why we are doing what we do and we also tell, what we are going to do every time. In some cases like the tharpanam we also tell when we are doing it and where.
To attain the grace of God, through destruction of sins committed by me, praying the lord of all worlds,
i. I pray god Lakshmi pathi and mention below the auspicious hour, day, star, moon phase, my knowledge base and the strength of God and salute the feets of Lord Vishnu.
ii. Whether one is in pure or impure state or whatever state one is in, just by remembering Pundarikaksha that is Lord Vishnu, I get cleaned both outside and inside.
iii. There is no doubt that the sins committed either by mind, or words or by action go away by remembering the names of Lord Rama. Rama. Rama
iv. The moon phase, the day, the star, the yoga and the happenings are all Lord Vishnu and thus the whole world is filled with Lord Vishnu. Govinda, Govinda, Govinda.
v. In the second ionic division of lord Brahma who acted according to the wishes of the prime God Lord Vishnu, In the great period of the white Varaha, in the extended reign of Vaivasvatha manu, in the 28th time period which is the first step of Kali yuga,
At the Indian sub-continent of the Indian continent of the great Jambu island, In the south of the Meru mountain, In the year of the saka timeperiod starting with the year Prabhava, in the solstice, in the season, in the month of
In the waning/waxing period of the moon, in the day of the moon crescents, in the day, in the star, in the holy period which is for good action, which results in good, and in the period which has many other good properties, in the day of moon crescents, I do oblations with thil(gingelly) and water for destruction of all my sins and for the favour of the god, to my father whose name is who is of the form of vasu, who belongs to the gothra, to my grandfather whose name is who is of the form of Rudra, who belongs to the gothra, to my great grandfather whose name is who is of the form of adithya and who belongs to the gothra, as also to my mother(grandmother if she mother is alive) who is of the form of vasu and who belongs to the gothra and whose name is, to my grandmother (great grandmother if mother is alive) who is of the form of Rudra who belongs to the gothra
And whose name is, to my great grandmother (her mother if mother is alive) who is of the form of Adithya and who belongs to the Gothra and whose name is, to my maternal grandfather who is of the form of Vasu and who belongs to the gothra and whose name is, to my maternal great grandfather who is of the form of Rudra, who belongs to the gothra and whose name is, to my great grandfather of my mother who is of the form of Adithya and whose name is, to my maternal grandmother who is of the form of vasu, who belongs to the gotra and whose name is, to my maternal great grandmother who is of the form of Rudra, who belongs to the gothra and whose name is, to my great grandmother of my mother who is of the form of adithya who belongs to the gothra and whose name is. for their perennial satisfaction,

5. Avahanam (For my father’s side)
i. Hey revered manes, who have observed soma yaga, please travel through the royal path, and take part in this rite, which has been adopted by your ancestors. And bless me with children wealth and long life,
ii. Om is the sound of the holy lands, which are above this earth.
iii. I meditate on my father, grandfather, great grandfather whose names are
who were belonged to the gothra and whose respective forms are that of Vasu, rudhra and adhithya and my mother, grandmother and great grandmother whose names are who belonged to the gothra and whose respective forms are that of Vasu, Rudhra and Adhithya and request them to occupy this koorcham.

6. Asanam (For my father’s side)
i. Hey leaves of Durbha plant, I spread thine very soft leaves, which were only cut once here so that my manes can sit on you. Let my father, grandfather, great grandfather who are of the form of the moon sit on you along with their companions.
ii. I give seat to my father, grandfather, great grandfather and my mother, grandmother and great grandmother and worship them with gingelly.

7. Avahanam (For my maternal grandfather's side)
i. Hey revered manes, who have observed soma yaga, please travel through the royal path, and take part in this rite, which has been adopted by your ancestors. And bless me with children wealth and long life,
ii. Om is the sound of the holy lands, which are above this earth.
iii. I meditate on my maternal grandfather, maternal great grandfather, grandfather of maternal grandfather whose names are
who were belonged to the gothra and whose respective forms are that of Vasu, rudhra and adhithya and my maternal grandmother, maternal great grandmother and grandmother of maternal grandfather whose names are who belonged to the
gothra and whose respective forms are that of Vasu, Rudhra and Adhithya and request them to occupy this koorcham.

8. Asanam (For my maternal grandfathers side)
i. Hey leaves of Durbha plant, I spread thine very soft leaves, which were only cut once here so that my manes can sit on you. Let my maternal grandfather, maternal great grandfather, grandfather of maternal grandfather who are of the form of the moon sit on you along with their companions.
ii. I give seat to my maternal grandfather, maternal great grandfather, grandfather of my maternal grandfather and my maternal grandmother, maternal great grandmother and grandmother of my maternal grandfather and worship them with gingelly.

9. Oblations to paternal ancestors
a. Oblations to father
i. Let all those manes who are in the earth because they did not perform dutiful rites. Those manes who are great because they carried out fire sacrifices and those of average stature because they performed the rites prescribed to them, receive my oblations and bless me. Let those who do not trouble and know about the rites that I perform save me. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my father whose name is and who is born in the gothra and who is the form of vasu.
ii. Our manes who are known by names such as Angeeras, atharwas, and brugus,are of very great character and they all have great affection to their descendents. Let them who should be worshipped by doing fire sacrifices be is our mind doing good and bless us. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my father whose name is and who is born in the gothra and who is the form of vasu.
iii. Let my manes who have not done fire sacrifices but have reached pithru loka arrive here by the path taken by Gods. Let them get satisfied by this offering of food mixed with water and let them talk good of us in the other world and bless us with further and further progress. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my father whose name is and who is born in the gothra and who is the form of vasu.

b. Oblations to grandfather
i. Hey gods who love water, carry suitable food, nectar, ghee, blood and toddy to my manes if by chance they are born as men, tree, creeper and men of the lower caste and make it suitable food for them and also become food for them. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my grandfather whose name is and who is born in the gothra and who is the form of Rudra.
ii. I salute my father, grandfather and great grandfather who like the food called swadha which is mixed with water and offer them the food which is swadha. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my grandfather whose name is and who is born in the gothra and who is the form of Rudra.
iii. Hey God of fire who is all knowing, You know my manes who are present here, who are not present here, those who are known to me because they departed not long ago, those are not known to me,. Please take this food with water, which I am offering to them and let all my manes become happy. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my grandfather whose name is and who is born in the gothra and who is the form of Rudra

c. Oblations to great grandfather
i. Let air do me (who is offering these oblations) good and rivers and medicinal plants give me sweetness I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my great grandfather whose name is and who is born in the gothra and who is the form of Adhithya.
ii. Let night and day do me good. Let earth give me sweetness and very good quality food. Let the sky, which is like my father not trouble me with no rain or excess rain and grant me pure pleasure. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my great grandfather whose name is and who is born in the gothra and who is the form of Adhithya.
iii. Let trees bless me by giving fruits. Let Sun god give me energy without much hot weather. Let cows give me sweet milk. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my great grandfather whose name is and who is born in the gothra and who is the form of adhitya.

d. e. f. Mother, grandmother, great grandmother
Three oblations each are offered without any "riks(prayer chant) to the lady ancestors with the manthra
"I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my mother (grandmother, great grandmother) whose name is and who is born in the gothra and who is the form of vasu. (Rudra for grandmother, Adithya for great grandmother. ) "

10. Oblations to unknown manes of the father's side
This is offered thrice with the chant.
"I offer this swadha food which is mixed with water to my known and unknown manes of my paternal side. "
Hey gods who love water, carry suitable food, nectar, ghee, blood and toddy to my manes if by chance they are born as men, tree, creeper and men of the lower caste and make it suitable food for them and also become food for them. Oh manes please get satisfied, please get satisfied and please get satisfied.
The Tharpanam for the manes of the maternal grandfather side (11 and 12) is same as that of paternal side except the manes of the maternal grandfathers side are mentioned so as to avoid repetition this meaning is not given.

13. Pradakshinam
Salutations to gods, manes and great sages.
Salutations to food, fire sacrifice daily
The meaning of the alternate manthra:
Oh manes salutations,
To your spirit,
Your strength,
Your soul,
Your food, which is swadha,
Your anger,
And your strong punishment.
Let those people whom you are with,
Obey you.
You kindly do as per our wishes.
Please be friends to those whom you are
Within Pithru loka and be a good home for them.
For those who are in this earth,
Let me a good home.

14. Namaskaram (Salutations)
Salutations to father - grandfather and great grandfather,
Salutations to mother - grandmother - great grandmother
Salutations to maternal grandfather, his father and his grandfather
Salutations to maternal grandmother, maternal great grandmother and great grandmother of maternal grandfather.
The meaning of alternate manthra.
Oh manes who are great in blessing and in action,
Be pleased to depart by either the old way
or through the land of yama or any other way,
Please grant us wealth and good luck.
Please tell the Vasu, adhithya and devathas,
About the food that I offered you.

15. Udwasanam
This is the same as Avahana manthra except that the manes are asked to go their place and are requested to come again and again.

16. Sarva Tharpanam (general oblations)
Let all those manes who do not have mother, father, friends, others of their family or even others belonging to other gotras to do tharpanam for them partake this water mixed with gingely and be satisfied. , be satisfied, be satisfied.

17. Brahmarpanam
I do give all this to the great god Brahma so that faults are pardoned.


Appendix:

1. Names of Nakshatras in Sanskrit for Sankalpa
 S. No.     Tamil     Malayalam     Sanskrit
1.    Aswathi     Aswini     Aswini
2.    Bharani     Bharani     Apabharani
3.    Karthigai     Karthiga     Kruthiga
4.    Rohini     Rohini     Rohinee
5.    Mriga Siarm     Mageeram     Mriga Seersha
6.    Thiruvathirai     Thiruvathira     Arudhra
7.    Punarpoosam     Punartham     Punarvasu
8.    Poosam     Pooyam     Pushya
9.    Ayilyam     Ayilyam     Aslesha
10.    Magam     Makam     Magha
11.    Pooram     Pooram     Poorva Phalguni
12.    Uthiram     Uthram     Uthra Phalguni
13.    Haastham     Atham     Hastha
14.    Chithirai     Chithra     Chitra
15.    Swathi     Swathi     Swathi
16.    Vishagam     Vishakam     Vishaka
17.    Anusham     Anizham     Anuradha
18.    Kettai     Ketta     Jyeshta
19..    Moolam     Moolam     Moola
20.    Pooradam     Pooradam     Poorvashada
21.    Uthradam     Uthradam     Uthrashada
22.    Thiruvonam     Thiruvonam     Sravana
23.    Avittam     Avittam     Sravishta
24.    Chathayam     Chathayam     Satha bishak
25.    Poororattathi     Poororattathi     Poorva proshta pada
26.    Uthrattathi     Uthrattathi     Uthara proshtapada
27.    Revathy     Revathy     Revathee
                
2. Names of Days of Week in Sanskrit for Sankalpa
1.    Sunday     Bhanuvasara     
2.    Monday    Induvasara     
3.    Tuesday    Bhouma vasara     
4.    Wednesday    Soumya vasara     
5.    Thursday    Guru vasara     
6.    Friday    Brugu vasara     
7.    Saturday    Sthiravasara     
               
3. Names of Months in Sanskrit for Sankalpa:
S. No.     Tamil     Malayalam     Sanskrit
1.    Chitthirai     Medam     Mesham
2.    Vaikasi     Edavam     Rishabha
3.    Aani     Midhunam     Midhuna
4.    Aadi     Karkidagam     Karkada
5.    Aavani     Chingam     Simham
6.    Puratasi     Kanni     Kanya
7.    Iyppasi     Thulam     Thula
8.    Karthigai     Vrischigam     Vrucchiga
9.    Margazhi     Dhanu     Dhanu
10.    Thai     Makaram     Makara
11.    Masi     Kumbham     Kumbha
12.    Panguni     Meenam     Meena
               
4. Names of the Seasons:
 S. No.     Sanskrit     Tamil     Malayalam
1.    Vasantha Ruthu     Chithirai-Vaikasi     Medam-edavam
2.    Greeshma Rithu     Aani-Aadi     Mithunam-karkidagam
3.    Varsha Rithu     Aavani-purattasi     Chingam-Kanni
4.    Sarad Rithu     Ippasi-Karthigai     Thulam-Vrischigam
5.     Hemantha Rithu     Margazhi-Thai     Dhanu-Makaram
6.     Sishira Rithu     Maasi-Panguni     Kumbham-Meenam

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