Bhagavad Gita Verses

Bhagavad Gita
Song of the Lord [In English Verses]
Translated by P. R. Ramachander

Chapter-1: Arjuna's State of Grief
Chapter-2: Way of Discriminative Logic
Chapter-3: Way of Action
Chapter-4: State of Action, Wisdom and Renunciation
Chapter-5: Renunciation of Action
Chapter-6: Art of Meditation
Chapter-7: Knowledge and Realization
Chapter-8: Non Decaying Ultimate Spirit
Chapter-9: Active Knowledge which is the Secret
Chapter-10: Manifestations of God
Chapter-11: Seeing of the Universal Form
Chapter-12: Path of Devotion
Chapter-13: Discrimination between Arena and Performer
Chapter-14: Three Quality States
Chapter-15: Knowledge of Supreme Being
Chapter-16: Division of Divine and Demonic Attributes
Chapter-17: Three Kinds of Faith
Chapter-18: Way to Renunciation and Relinquishment

An Introduction to Bhagawad Gita [A translation in to free verse]:

The followers of Sanathana Dharma (otherwise called as Hindus) did not fall back on any single prophet or a single book as the basis of the irreligion. Right from the beginning, this religion (thought process) had a pluralistic view. On one hand the religion appeared to depend on rituals, prayers and rites and on the other hand it appeared to depend on a very democratic exchange of philosophic ideas between the teacher and the student as in the Upanishads, which were at the end of the Vedas. Not all Upanishads were discussion of philosophy and many of them did indeed discuss rituals and prayers to individual God. The sum total of the Hindu philosophic thought was individual research aided under the direction of the Guru. The thought process slipped down to worship of individual gods and epic stories (Puranas) about the Gods were written down.

The person who compiled and systematized all the religious knowledge contained in the initial Vedas as well as the stories of Individual Gods was a sage called Veda Vyasa. (Veda means knowledge and Vyasa means essay writer.) He compiled the information available on different Gods in to 18 epics besides compiling the four Vedas. The most encyclopedic epic of them all was called the Mahabharata. The main theme of this epic was the struggle for supremacy in India by the hundred sons of King Drutharashtra (called Kauravas) and the 5 sons of his younger brother Pandu called the Pandavas. At the end of struggle is a war between them. On the first day of the war, Arjuna the most valorous among the Pandava brothers appeared in the battle field driven by Lord Krishna who is his cousin, mentor and guide. But once Arjuna faced the prospect of killing his own cousins aided by his teachers, uncle and grandfather, he suddenly felt aghast and decided that, even starving to death would be a better option than killing them all. Lord Krishna then advises him (possibly the first recorded psychological counseling). Arjuna is not easily convinced. The next 700 stanzas of conversation between them in the battle field is Bhagawad Gita (The song of the Lord). Apart from simple advice to him, that Arjuna should fight, Lord Krishna summarizes the entire Hindu thought process on Sanathana Dharma in these 700 verses. By the blessing of Veda Vyasa all these was seen and heard by Sanjaya (collector and reporter) to Drutharashtra and were called the Bhagawad Gita. This was considered as a summary of Hindu religious thought and was revered by all Hindus. For a long time, this state of thought existed.

Things changed with the writing of a commentary to this great work by Adi Sankara, who proved that this great book provided support to his interpretation of Hindu philosophy of Advaita (non dualism). The great Ramanuja who came out with a different philosophy called Visisthadvaitha (specialized non dualism) again wrote a commentary and claimed that Gita supported his system of philosophy. It was again followed by another interpretation to gather support to the philosophy of Dwaitha (dualism) propounded by sage Madhwa. After this period Bhagawad Gita became the most important religious book of Hindus. Several more commentaries and translations to Indian languages followed. The great commentators were Abhinava Guptha, Nimbarka, Vallabha and Gnaneswar in Marathi etc. The book became so popular in the Hindu psyche that, Hindus took oath on Bhagawad Gita like Christians took oath on Bible. In 1785 Charles Wilkins published an English translation of the Bhagavad Gita, which was the first time that a Sanskrit book had been translated directly into a European language. In 1808 passages from the Gita were part of the first direct translation of Sanskrit into German, appearing in a book through which Friedrich Schlegel, who became known as the founder of Indian philology in Germany. Edwin Arnold was the first one to publish a translation into English verse in 1885. Many commentaries and translations followed with great regularity. Mahatma Gandhi who also wrote a commentary was so impressed by this great work that he wrote: "I find solace in the Bhagavad Gita that I miss even in the Sermon on the Mount. When disappointment stares me in the face and all alone I see not one ray of light, I go back to the Bhagavad Gita. I find a verse here and a verse there and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming tragedies - and my life has been full of external tragedies - and if they have left no visible, no indelible scar on me, I owe it all to the teaching of Bhagawad Gita".

The first chapter of Gita details the back ground circumstances, which lead to this teaching. In the second chapter Lord Krishna tells Arjuna that he should fight because It is his duty and that by killing a body he does not kill a soul and the highest form of action is when action is done without bothering about the fruits of such action. In this connection he also tells him that inaction is a great sin. Later at the request of Arjuna he explains about the difference between, deeds which take you to heaven but you are reborn later and that deed which once for all merges you with the lord. Some of the prominent approaches explained by him are:

1. Doing action without bothering about fruits of such action.
2. Simple and steadfast devotion, surrendering all results to him.
3. Physical meditation of the highest order by which one becomes him.
4. The path through intelligent search of the God.
5. Simple and pure renunciation.

During this discussion, he also shows him his supreme form, tells him, in which beings his presence will be felt more, the differences between the three states of Sathwa, Rajas and Thamas, the differences between the four varnas and so on. In short it is concise encyclopedia of all that for which Hinduism stands for.

Thousands of translations, interpretations and commentaries of the Bhagawad Gita in English as well as various other languages are already available. As mentioned before Edwin Arnold attempted to do a translation in English verse. Recently a similar effort was made by Sanderson Beck. The present translation is done in free English verse in as simple language as possible. I have tried to understand what has been written in Gita and wrote what I have understood, after reading various translations and commentaries, in a simple verse form. Not being a great scholar, I have not attempted for a commentary on what is the implication of each verse.

I dedicate my translation to the lay English reader interested in Hindu philosophy with a request to him to treat this translation as an appetizer. I am hoping that my effort would make him read several, more scholarly commentaries on Gita by very great souls and try to clear his various doubts. I am making this request because I have still not understood the treasure house of Gita and am doing exactly that.

Given below are what great people all over the world told about Bhagawad Gita from a collection published by Sri M. P. Bhattathiri (

When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so superfluous. [Albert Einstein]

When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and I see not one ray of hope on the horizon, I turn to Bhagavad-gita and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow. Those who meditate on the Gita will derive fresh joy and new meanings from it every day. [Mahatma Gandhi]

In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagavad-gita, in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial. [Henry David Thoreau]

The Bhagavad-Gita has a profound influence on the spirit of mankind byits devotion to God which is manifested by actions. [Dr. AlbertSchweitzer]

The Bhagavad-Gita is a true scripture of the human race a living creation rather than a book, with a new message for every age and a new meaning for every civilization. [Sri Aurobindo]

The idea that man is like unto an inverted tree seems to have been current in by gone ages. The link with Vedic conceptions is provided by Plato in his Timaeus in which it states behold we are not an earthly but a heavenly plant. This correlation can be discerned by what Krishna expresses in chapter 15 of Bhagavad-Gita. [Carl Jung]

The Bhagavad-Gita deals essentially with the spiritual foundation of human existence. It is a call of action to meet the obligations and duties of life; yet keeping in view the spiritual nature and grander purpose of the universe. [Nehru]

The marvel of the Bhagavad-Gita is its truly beautiful revelation of life's wisdom which enables philosophy to blossom into religion. [Herman Hesse]

I owed a magnificent day to the Bhagavad-gita. It was the first of books; it was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us. [Ralph Waldo Emerson]

In order to approach a creation as sublime as the Bhagavad-Gita with full understanding it is necessary to attune our soul to it. [Rudolph Steiner]

From a clear knowledge of the Bhagavad-Gita all the goals of human existence become fulfilled. Bhagavad-Gita is the manifest quintessence of all the teachings of the Vedic scriptures. [Adi Sankara]

The Bhagavad-Gita is the most systematic statement of spiritual evolution of endowing value to mankind. It is one of the most clear and comprehensive summaries of perennial philosophy ever revealed; hence its enduring value is subject not only to India but to all of humanity. [Aldous Huxley]

The Bhagavad-Gita was spoken by Lord Krishna to reveal the science of devotion to God Which is the Essence of all spiritual knowledge. The Supreme Lord Krishna's primary purpose for descending and incarnating was to relieve the world of any demoniac and negative, undesirable influences that are opposed to spiritual development, yet simultaneously it is His incomparable intention to be perpetually within reach of all humanity. [Ramanuja]

The Bhagavad-Gita is not separate from the Vaishnava philosophy and the Srimad Bhagavatam fully reveals the true import of this doctrine which is transmigration of the soul. On perusal of the first chapter of Bhagavad-Gita one may think that they are advised to engage in warfare. When the second chapter has been read it can be clearly understood that knowledge and the soul is the ultimate goal to be attained. On studying the third chapter it is apparent that acts of righteousness are also of high priority. If we continue and patiently take the time to complete the Bhagavad-Gita and try to ascertain the truth of its closing chapter we can see that the ultimate conclusion is to relinquish all the conceptualized ideas of religion which we possess and fully surrender directly unto the Supreme Lord. [Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati]

The Mahabharata has all the essential ingredients necessary to evolve and protect humanity and that within it the Bhagavad-Gita is the epitome of the Mahabharata just as ghee is the essence of milk and pollen is the essence of flowers. [Madhvacarya]

Yoga has two different meanings - a general meaning and a technical meaning. The general meaning is the joining together or union of any two or more things. The technical meaning is a state of stability and peace and the means or practices which lead to that state. The Bhagavad Gita uses the word with both meanings. Lord Krishna is a real Yogi who can maintain a peaceful mind in the midst of any crisis. [Mata Amritanandamayi Devi]

References Used:
1. Srimad Bhagawad Gita - Swami Swaroopananda - Advaita Ashram, Calcutta.
2. Srimad Bhagawad Gita - Swami Vireshwarananda - Sri Ramakrishna Math, Madras.
3. Srimad Bhagwad Gita - Tamil - Anna - Sri Ramakrishna Math, Madras.
4. Bhagwad Gita As It Is - Bhakthivedanta Prabhu Pada - Bhakthi Vedantha Book Trust.
5. Jnaneswari - Malyalam - Sri Chandra Shekhara Pillai - Jnanesawari Geetha Pracharana Prathishtan, Kahnakad, Kerala.
6. Song Celestial - Edwin Arnold - Roberts brothers, Boston.
7. Bhagwad Gita with Sankara's Commentary - Alladi Mahadeva Sastry - Samata Books, Chennai.
8. Bhagwad Gita - Ramanand Prasad - International Gita Society -
9. Bhagwad Gita - Sri Purohit Swami.
10. Essays on Gita - William Quan Judge -
11. Bhagawad Gita - A Commentary in Tamil - Subrahmanya Bharathiar - Kavitha Publication, Madras.
12. Bhagawad Gita - Srinivas Fine Arts, Sivakasi.
13. Bhagwad Gita - Swami Shivanada Saraswathi -
14. Bhagwad Gita - Swami Chinamayanada - Chinmaya Mission, Bombay.
15. Bhagwad Gita - Jayaram V.
16. Bhagwad Gita and Management - Bhattathiri M. P.

Arjuna's State of Grief

[Drutharashtra, the blind and Pandu were brothers. Drutharashtra being elder was the king. He had 100 sons (kauravas). Pandu had five sons (Pandavas). The great epic Mahabharatha is the story of the rivalry between the Kauravas and Pandavas. After all possible methods have been tried to reconcile their conflict, a decision of war is arrived at. This war takes place in Kuru Kshethra (The land of the Kurus). Since Drutharashtra is blind, he cannot see. His mentor and progenitor Veda Vyasa, gives the power to see everything that happens in the battlefield to one Sanjaya (literally correspondent) and report it to Drutharashtra. Bhagwad Gita starts at this point. Arjuna whose chariot is being driven by Lord Krishna is aghast, when he realizes that to win the war he has to kill all the members of his family as well as his teachers. He feels that this is not the right thing to do. Chapter I of Bhagwad Gita ends with Arjuna expressing his inability to continue with the war. Seventeen chapters follow in which Lord Krishna convinces him that he must fight. During these teaching and discussion, all aspects of Indian philosophy are concisely presented.]

Drutharashtra asked:

Oh Sanjaya, what are my sons and Pandavas, who are eager to fight,
Doing in the holy battle field of Kursukshethra? 1

Sanjaya said:

After seeing the pandavas aligned in the battle field,
The King Duryodhana approached his teacher and asked? 2

I am seeing the great army of the sons of Pandu, my teacher,
Well arranged by the son of Drupada, who is your great disciple. 3

I am seeing among them great warriors like Bheema and Arjuna,
And also great warriors like Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupadha. 4
Yuyudhana - Sathyaki, the cousin of Krishna
Virata - The king of Virata country
Drupada - The father of Draupadi

Among them also are great heroes like Drushta Kethu, Chekithana
The King of Kasi and Purujit, Kunthi Bhoja and the great King Shaibhya. 5
Drushta Kethu - Son of Shishupala
Chekithana - A warrior from Vrushni clan
Purujit Kuntibhoja - Brother of Kunti
Shaibhya - Father in law of Yudhishtra

The very powerful Yudhamanyu and the great warrior Uthamoujas.
And sons of Darupadi and Subadhra, all of whom are great warriors. 6
Yudhamanyu and Uthamoujas - Two panchala warriors

Our army also has great warriors and I am listing them,
Oh great twice born, for your understanding. 7

You, Bheeshma.Karna, Krupa who is a war winner,
Aswathama, Vikarna and Soumadathi are among them. 8
Krupa - Another teacher, who is brother in law of Drona
Vikarna - Brother of Duryodhana
Soumadathi - Son of Somadatha.

There are many more warriors, who are prepared to sacrifice,
Their lives for my sake and they are well armed and experts in war. 9

The strength of our army lead by Bheeshma is beyond measure,
As against their limited strength, which is protected by Bhima. 10

(Can also mean
The strength of our army lead by Bheeshma is not sufficient,
As against their needed strength, which is protected by Bhima. 10)

And so please prepare your army and hold it in readiness,
And all of you at any cost protect the great Bheeshma. 11

Then the old man of the Kuru clan, the great Bheeshma,
Blew his conch like a roar of lion to reassure Him. 12

All of a sudden several conches, drums, cymbals and gongs,
Blew in unison, and that sound echoed and re-echoed and became great. 13.

Then Arjuna and Krishna sitting on a great chariot,
Drawn by white horses, blew their divine conches also. 14

Lord Krishna blew his conch called Pancha Janya, Arjuna blew his Devadatha
And the Bhima with fire in his stomach blew his conch poundram. 15

The king Yudhishtra, who is the son of Kunthi, blew his conch Anantha Vijaya,
Nakula his conch Sugosha and Sahadeva his conch Mani pushpaka. 16

The great archer Kashyapa, the great charioteer Shikandi,
Drushtadhyumna, Virata, Sathyaki who has never faced defeat, 17
The King Drupada, sons of Draupadi, the great son of Subadhra,
Blew their conches separately again and again. 18

That sound shattered the hearts of the sons of Drutharashtra,
And also echoed and re-echoed in the earth and the sky. 19

Seeing these state of affairs of the sons of Drutharashtra,
The hero with a monkey in his flag realizing that the time was ready for war,
Held his bow aloft and Oh king, told like this to Krishna. 20

Arjuna said:

Please position this chariot in the middle of armies, oh Krishna,
So that I can see all those who have come ready for this battle,
Summoned by the evil minded sons of Drutharashtra,
And who have wished for this war and decide on all those
Whom I should fight, when the war commences. 21-23

Sanjaya said:

The Lord Krishna, when told like this by Arjuna,
Took and placed the chariot in the middle of the armies,
And told him, Please see the great warriors,
Of the Kuru clan lead by Bheeshma and Drona. 24-25

After seeing his in-laws, friends in the two armies,
And also his grand father, his teacher, uncles, brothers,
Sons and grand sons, Arjuna was overcome with compassion,
And getting in to the clutches of sorrow, told the following words. 26

Arjuna said:

I am seeing my people here, Krishna, who are ready for the war,
My body becomes weak, my face becomes dry,
My body is entirely covered with sweat, my hairs stand erect,
My bow Gandiva is getting out of my grip,
My whole body burns and I am not able to even to stand erect.
My life seems to be leaving me and my mind gets upset. 27-30

I am seeing bad omens, Krishna which are counter productive,
I do not see anything which will lead me to fame,
By killing all these people who are my own people. 31

I do not desire victory Krishna, or country or pleasure,
What is the use in having this country Govinda,
And what is the use in having a pleasure filled life?
For what is the point in having a country or even life, after
Killing teachers fathers, sons, grand father,
Uncles, in laws, grand sons, brother in laws and all relatives.
Even if they want to kill me. Oh killer of Madhu,
And even if I am going to be the king of the three worlds,
I am not interested in killing them for this trifle of land. 32-35

What happiness will I ever get by killing these sons of Drutharashtra,
For even though they deserve to be killed, only sin will get attached to me. 36

Oh Krishna, though the sons of Drutharashtra deserve to be killed,
Since they are our relations, how can we get pleasure out of such an action?
Though I am seeing that they do not realize in their mind,
The sin of destroying a family and treachery to their friends,
How can we who realize the sin which results in destruction of family,
Not know that we have to withdraw from committing such a sin? 37-38

When families are killed, the just life* of the society perishes,
And by the loss of just life, injustice tends to grow aloft. 39
* The actual word is Dharma

When injustice occupies the land, good women loose their virtue,
And when they loose their virtue, there is mixture of the castes. 40

The mixture of castes leads the families and
Those who destroy them to hell, for their ancestors
Will not be worshipped with rice balls and water. 41

Because of the sins of those who destroy families,
And those who lead to such a mixture of castes,
The just duties of the castes as also the families cease to exist. 42-43

Oh Krishna, I have heard that those who destroy,
The just duties of families live forever in the portals of hell. 44

Alas! We are just getting prepared to do a very great sin,
By killing our own people for the sake of ruling over a country. 45

If the armed sons of Drutharashtra kill me, who am not armed,
That would lead me to lot of useful pleasure. 46

Sanjaya said:

After telling thus Arjuna became extremely sad,
Divested himself of his arms and sat in his chariot.

Thus ends the First Chapter of Bhagawad Gita,
Which is the Essence of all Upanishads,
Which is the Science of the Eternal and Yoga,
And the dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna,
Which is called Arjuna's State of Grief.

Way of Discriminative Logic

[In this chapter Lord Krishna tries to clear the fuddled mind of Arjuna using discriminative logic. He tells him that he is not killing anything, because the soul cannot be killed. After establishing this he tells him, that he can command (order about) only his own actions but is helpless in getting the results that he desires.]

Sanjaya said:

To him who is completely weakened by compassion,
Who was with eyes filled with copious tears,
And who was imprisoned by worries,
Lord Sri Krishna, the killer of Madhu, told thus. 1

Lord said:

Oh Arjuna who is faced with a dangerous situation.
How come this inglorious thought came in to you?
Which is ungentlemanly, which bars your way to heaven,
And which would become a blot to your fame. 2

Oh Arjuna, do not go in this path of thought which is fit to the unmanly,
And cast away this minor weakness of mind and raise up to fight. 3

Arjuna said:

Oh killer of Madhu, who is fit for worship,
How can I kill Bheeshma and Drona,
Who are fit to be worshipped by me,
By shooting several arrows at them. 4

It would rather give fame to eat alms got as charity,
Than to kill such teachers who are very great people,
For I would be forced to enjoy the pleasures,
Which are soaked in the blood of these great ones. 5

I do not know whether it is better for us to win over the enemy,
Or the enemies to attain a victory over us, but I know,
That against me are arraigned the sons of Drutharashtra,
By killing whom, I will not have any wish to live further. 6

My conduct has lost its sharpness due to ignorance,
And due to that I am not able to know, what is my rightful action,
And so please tell me which path would lead to me to fame,
For I am your student and have surrendered to you. 7

Even if I get a country with no enemies, and one with riches,
Or even if I get the kingship of the great heaven,
I do not see any way that would drive away,
My blasting sorrow which wilts my sense organs. 8

Sanjaya said:

Arjuna who can kill his enemies,
Told Lord Krishna who is beyond meditation,
That he would not participate in the war,
And simply sat there, in a continued silence. 9

Oh Drutharashtra, the King of entire India.
Then Sri Krishna smilingly told as follows to Arjuna,
Who sat grieving in the middle of the two armies. 10

Lord said:

You are sorrowing for those who do not merit such sorrow,
And also talking and arguing like a very learned man,
In spite of the fact that wise men do not sorrow,
Over people who are alive or those people who are no more. 11

There was never a time, when I was not there,
There was no time when you or these kings were not there,
And in future also there will be never a time,
When we both and these kings will not be there. 12

Clearly understanding the fact that,
All individuals with this body, will attain,
States of childhood, youth and old age,
And after death the soul will reach another body.
Brave (learned?) men never get worried. 13

Oh Arjuna, we are able to feel the heat or cold,
Or pass through the state of joy and sorrow,
Due the interaction of sense organs with these feelings,
Oh Bharatha, learn to tolerate and understand them,
As they are unstable and appear and then vanish. 14

Oh king among men, that wise man,
Who is not affected by these feelings,
Who considers pain and pleasure alike,
Would become suitable for immortality. 15

Philosophers and wise men know that,
That which is not there, does not exist,
For it would never start to exist,
And that which is there would,
Never cease to exist and be forever. 16

Please know that, that which fills all this
Universe is the one that never dies,
And that never undergoes change,
And none can cause destruction to it. 17

You start fighting in this battle, Arjuna,
For the soul*, which is perennial and stable,
Is beyond destruction and beyond proper understanding,
And is said to occupy this very perishable body. 18
*I am using the English word ‘soul' for ‘Atma'
Some authors use the word ‘embodied self'

He who thinks that he is killing this soul,
And he who considers that the soul has died,
Are both ignorant, for this soul,
Can either kill nobody, nor can anybody kill it. 19

This soul is never born nor ever dies,
It never comes to existence and later vanishes,
And this soul which is permanent, perennial and old,
Never dies when the body dies. 20

Hey Arjuna, how can he who knows this soul as,
That which cannot be wounded, perennial and never ever is born,
Ever kill some one or get some one else killed. 21

Like a man leaving out old worn out cloths,
And start wearing new cloths when necessary,
This soul leaves the body which becomes useless,
And moves on to newer bodies. 22

This soul cannot be hurt by arrows,
It can never be burnt by fire,
It can never be made wet,
And it can never be dried by any wind. 23

This soul can never be cut nor burnt,
It can never be made wet or dried,
This is perennial, goes everywhere,
And is stable, immobile and ancient. 24

This soul can never be seen, is beyond thought,
Beyond actions and the one which cannot be separated,
And once you realize this perennial truth,
You do not have the right to sorrow for it. 25

Oh great warrior, If you are under the impression,
That this soul is one which is daily born and dying daily,
Even then, you do not have the right to sorrow for it. 26

For all that is born, certainly dies,
And all that dies is born again,
And so on, a matter which cannot be corrected,
You do not have the right to sorrow. 27

What is the point in showing sorrow,
For that which was unclear before birth,
Clear in the central period of time,
And again becoming unclear after death? 28

Some view it with awe,
Others talk about it with awe,
Some others hear about it with awe,
But there is none among them,
Who clearly knows anything about it. 29

This soul which daily lives inside the body,
Can never be killed at anytime, Arjuna,
So you do not have to sorrow about.
The death of any being in this world. 30

Even viewing it from the aspect,
Of just action* as applicable to you,
You need not have to worry about it,
Because for one belonging to the kingly race,
There is nothing which brings more fame than war. 31
* I am using the phrase ‘just action' instead of Dharma,
fully realizing that the word Dharma has much bigger connotation.

This war which came in an accidental fashion,
Actually keeps the doors of heaven open,
And is available only to those lucky of the kingly clan,
Who participate whole heartedly in this war. 32

If you are not going to fight,
This war as per the holy tenets,
Then your fame and dharma would die,
And you would be engulfed in sin. 33

Instead of talking about your fame,
All beings would talk about your ill fame,
And such talk of ill fame is,
Worse than the state of death. 34

All great heroes would think,
That you have ran away from the war out of fear,
And all of them having good opinion about you,
Will think of you in a very debased manner. 35

Your enemies would berate your heroism,
And start talking words which should not be uttered,
And what is there more sorrowful than hearing those words? 36

Oh Arjuna, if you are killed in this war,
Certainly you will reach heaven,
And if you are victorious you will,
Taste the kingship of a kingdom,
And so get up and start fighting. 37

Get engaged in this war,
Keeping pain and pleasure equally,
And loss and profit equally,
And then only you will not,
Suffer the results of sin. 38

I was till now talking to you about,
The discriminative system of philosophy,
And now I am going to talk to you
About the path of action, knowing which
You can get freed from the ties of duties. 39

There is no waste of efforts in this,
And contra effects will never result,
Even a slight practice of this type of action,
Protects you from greatest fears known. 40

Hey son of Kuru clan, there is only one
Type of this wisdom which is fixed in goal,
But the brains of those who are wavering,
Have no definite goal and travels in many ways. 41

Oh Arjuna, these ignorant men,
Find pleasure in the flowery words of Veda,*
And will ever argue with pride,
That there is nothing greater. 42
*Reference is made here to the Karma Kanda of Vedas,
Which prescribe specific rites for specific fruits.

They will tell you, those actions,
Results of actions and repeated births
Are meant for experiencing joy,
And they would drown themselves in desires. 43

They will tell you words which are similar
To the fruit less flowering tree,
And since they travel behind desires,
Will not have time for any meditation.* 44
* The word Samadhi indicates a state of oneness of mind attained through meditation.

(This sloka could also mean:-
These people attached to enjoyment and position
Are without wisdom and would never get
In their mind stable thoughts and directions. 44)

Oh Arjuna, Vedas deal with the three aspects of action,
But you have to become one above, the three states of action,
Win over the plurality of thoughts and have a mind,
Not wandering behind earning and upkeep of wealth
Become happy in yourself and enjoy the bliss of the soul. 45

To the wise man, Vedas are only as useful
As the little spools of water which are contained
In the limitless water which is filled everywhere. 46

You have only ownership of your actions,*
But you do not have anything to do with what results,
So please do not do any action with
Interest in the results but please
Forever never decide on doing no action. 47
*The word used here is Karma. It could mean
Duty/action, the load of previous actions on you and so on.

Oh Arjuna, when done bereft of any attachment,
With equal emphasis given to gains and losses,
If you are able to perform actions,
Then it is called the state of Yoga* 48
*Discipline of the soul

Oh Arjuna, action laced with wisdom,
But not attached to the results of such action,
Is far above action done with desire to its fruits,
And so take recourse to such an action,
For those who desire for results from actions are miserable. 49

He who is wise leaves out of this life,
Actions which are good and those which are bad,
And so make attempts for attaining such a state of yoga,
For yoga indicates skill in doing duties. 50

The learned one, who is wise, leaves out the fruits of actions,
Cuts off the ties imposed by birth and death,
And they certainly reach the state of no sorrow. 51

Oh Arjuna, When your wisdom crosses
The confused knowledge of illusion,
Then the body that we see is really the soul,
You would start going away from the knowledge,
Which you know and are going to know. 52

When your wisdom which is tossed here and there,
Hearing the multi wisdom of the Vedic words,
Becomes stable in the knowledge of the soul,
Then you would reach the stage of perennial yoga. 53

Arjuna asks:

What are the properties of the stable minded*
Who is in the state of pure meditation, Oh Kesava?
What does he talk and converse about?
Does he sit and walks like other men? 54
*Word used is ‘Sthitha Pragna' which can be translated as men of steady wisdom also.

Lord said:

The stable minded is the one, who has
Forsaken all desires and fluttering of the mind, Oh Arjuna,
And becomes contended and happy,
With his soul seeking pleasure only from the soul. 55

He would not get worried because of sorrows,
Would never get happiness from pleasures,
Would not have fear, anger and avarice,
And would be called the sage who is stable. 56

The one who is not attached to anything that he sees,
And reaching the state bereft of good or bad,
Without loving or hating such states,
Is the one who is called the stable minded. 57

Like a turtle withdrawing all his
Limbs from all sides in to his shell,
When one is able to withdraw in to himself,
His sense organs from the sensual pleasures,
His wisdom is that which is stable. 58

The pull of the sense organs go away
From one who lives without any food,
But in him, the desire for such pleasures remains,
Till he sees and attains the divine state 59

Oh Son of Kunthi, Is it not true that even in a
Man who is wise, trying to control his senses
The sense organs, which are tumultuous,
Pull his mind, with force in to some other way. 60

The man with a stable mind controls,
All the sense organs properly,
And considers me as the supreme,
And would live with peace. 61

He who thinks constantly of a thing,
Develops attachment to such a thing,
And from such an attachment desire develops,
And from desire is born the anger. 62

From anger is born the great illusion,
The great illusion leads to bewilderment,
This leads to destruction of wisdom,
This in turn leads to the total destruction. 63

But he who does not have likes or dislikes,
Who enjoys everything using the senses
Which are under his full control,
And who follows freedom with restraint,
Attains the state of clear headedness. 64

This clear headedness brings to an end,
All the sorrows that he ever has,
And due to this, he, within a short time,
Is able to establish his stable wisdom. 65

He who does not attain the state,
Of stable wisdom, does not have,
Capability to take correct decisions,
Nor does he have thought of the ultimate,
And he who does not think of the ultimate,
Does not ever have peace of mind,
And how can pleasure, ever come to him? 66

This is because the mind which follows,
The ever wavering pull of senses,
Would also drive his mind,
Like the wind driving a boat. 67

So, oh great hero, he whose senses,
Completely control their hankering,
Is the one who is steadily intelligent. 68

The sage who has complete control of his mind,
Is awake during the night of all beings,
When their mind is dark with ignorance;
And that time when all beings are awake,
Is the night for the sage who sees the truth. 69

Similar to the rivers traveling and merging,
In to the ocean which is always full and stable,
He in whom desires merge within him,
Is the one who attains peace and
The one who chases desires is not peaceful. 70

He who forsakes all desires,
And remains without any attachment,
Without thinking of me and mine,
Reaches the state of peace. 71

Oh Arjuna, this is the state of union with the divine,
Any one who reaches this will not drown in desires,
He would stand steadfastly till the end of his life,
And would attain the salvation, merging with the divine. 72

Thus ends the Second Chapter of Bhgawad Gita,
Which is the Essence of all Upanishads,
Which is the Science of the Eternal and Yoga,
And the dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna,
Which is called The Way of the Discriminative Logic.

Way of Action

[The Lord explains to Arjuna that every one has to do his duty. But if he does it without attachment to the results, he achieves his objective. He also explains that becoming slave to the senses and carrying out actions to satisfy them is wrong.]

Arjuna asked:

Hey God, if you feel that, wisdom is superior to action,
Why are you pushing me to do this savage war? 1

You seem to enchant my brain by your conflicting words,
Please tell me decisively that, by which I will get fame. 2

Lord said:

Oh sinless one, in the times ancient, I had taught
Two distinct ways of paths to follow,
The path of wisdom for the discriminatory and
The path of action to those performers of action. 3

The being does not become, one bereft of action,
Just because he does not begin an action,
And by renunciation of everything,
He does not reach the divine, perfect state. 4

None can remain for even for a fraction of time,
Without doing any action whatsoever,
For by fundamental laws of nature,
One is forced to indulge in some action or other. 5

He who claims control of the senses of action,
But mentally is a slave to the objects of these senses,
Is living in delusion and is a pretender. 6

Oh Arjuna, on the other hand,
The one who controls his senses,
And is able to do action without attachment,
Excels and is deemed as great. 7

Because, action at any time is better than inaction,
You continue to perform the action entrusted to you,
For in the state of inaction you may not
Be able to even move your body. 8

Except a sacrificial worship of the ultimate,
All other actions carried out
Are those which lead to a bondage,
And so Arjuna, do the duties in a proper manner,
Sacrificing it to God and without attachment. 9

During times of yore, Lord Brahma,
Created man along with sacrificial worship and told him,
You would grow with sacrifices and multiply,
For this would give you all that you want. 10

Worship gods with sacrifice and let gods entertain you with this,
And you would gain great good by this mutual support. 11

Gods who are worshipped by sacrifices,
Would grant you all that you want,
And enjoying, what they have given to you,
Without giving them something back to them is indeed a theft. 12

The saints who do sacrificial worship and live
With whatever is left after the worship with them
Do get rid of all the sins committed by them,
While those sinners, who only cook for their eating only,
Do live eating always their sins. 13

All beings are born out of food,
All food is born out of rain,
All rain is born out of sacrifices,
And all sacrifices are born out of actions. 14

All actions are born out of Vedas,
All Vedas are born out of perennial God,
And so the Vedas which are spread every where,
Is based always on sacrificial worship. 15

Oh Arjuna, he who does not follow,
This rotating wheel of evolution,
Worships pleasures of sense organs,
And wastes his life in sin. 16

But that man who finds enjoyment in soul,
Gets contended with the soul,
And gets pleasures only from the soul,
Does not have any actions left to be done. 17

Such a one does not get anything by doing any action,
Nor does he loose anything by not doing it,
And he would not find anything to depend or desire,
In all things and in all events. 18

So perform all actions that should be done,
In a very proper way, without attachment,
For the man who does actions without attachment,
Attains a state of the supreme divine. 19

Don't you know that great ones like Janaka,
Attained the top divine state by performing action,
Also you should become the one to do your duties.
For putting the world in right track and guide them.
Because ordinary people follow,
The actions done by great and special people
And they also follow all their ideas
Of what is considered as great. 20- 21

Oh Arjuna, I do not have even an iota of work,
That I should do in all these three worlds,
Also there is nothing that I need to attain,
Or left to be attained, but still I always work. 22

Oh Arjuna, if I fail to keep myself busy,
Without rest by doing work, it is for sure,
Those men would follow me in all my ways. 23

If I do not do my work, this world,
Would totally perish and I would become,
Responsible for mixing of communities,
And consequent destruction of all people. 24

Oh Arjuna, the wise man should do his duties,
Without attachment for the sake of the upkeep of the world,
In a fashion similar to the ordinary people,
Who do their duties with attachment. 25

He should not create confusion,
Among the non wise and lead them,
By doing all his actions properly,
And make such people follow his path. 26

All actions in this world are done,
Due to innate property of nature,
And only the self centered one,
Who is ignorant thinks that he does it. 27

But, oh great warrior, he who knows,
The differentiation and function of the senses,
Would understand that these senses,
Would act through sense objects,
And would never get attached to them. 28

Those who are deceived by the natural instincts,
Think that they do the work and are responsible for it,
And the man who is completely wise,
Should not upset these ignorant souls. 29

Dedicate all the work you do to me,
And understanding that you are the soul,
Do actions without desire and attachment,
And undertake this war in the state of peace. 30

Those men who follow this advice of mine,
With sincerity devoid of jealousy,
Would be freed from the bondage of duties. 31

But those men who find fault with this advice of mine,
And do not follow it and get drowned in ignorance,
Would waste their life as they are not wise. 32

Even if a man is wise, he still would,
Follow the dictates of nature, for,
All our thoughts flow from innate nature,
And how can restraint help greatly? 33

In case of every organ of the senses,
Likes and dislikes are inbuilt,
And so one should never be controlled by them,
For, definitely these are his great enemies. 34

Duties faultily done according to our innate nature are always better than,
Well and properly executed duties as done or taught by others,
For even death by doing our own duty is to be preferred,
As the travel in the path charted by others is dangerous. 35

Arjuna asked:

Oh Lord of Vrushnis, then why are the men,
Being forced without willingness to do sinful actions? 36

Lord said:

Please know as your enemies are, your acts of passion,
Acts of fury, acts done for the sake of self,
Acts of great food consumption and
Acts creating other greatly sinful actions. 37

Similar to fire being hidden by smoke,
The mirror being hidden because of dirt,
And the fetus is being hidden by womb,
Desire keeps wisdom in hiding. 38

The wisdom of man is hidden,
By the fire of his desire,
This is his constant enemy,
And has the shape of passion,
And can never ever be satiated. 39

It is generally believed that desire,
Lives in the mind and sense organs,
And because of this, it hides wisdom,
And enchants the soul, which lives in the body. 40

Oh greatest among the Bharathas, please,
Keep under control your sense organs,
And then destroy this sinful passion, which
Kills the knowledge and realization. 41

People say sense organs are great,
But Mind is greater than sense organs,
Wisdom is greater than the mind,
And that which is beyond wisdom is the soul. 42

Oh great warrior, thus understanding,
That which is beyond wisdom,
Control the mind and the senses,
And by having a stable mind,
Destroy desire, which is but,
An enemy which can never be conquered.. 43

Thus ends the Third Chapter of Bhagawad Gita,
Which is the Essence of all Upanishads,
Which is the Science of the Eternal and Yoga,
And the dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna,
Which is called The Way of Action.

State of Action, Wisdom and Renunciation

[Here the path of action and the path of wisdom are compared. It is concluded that wisdom is like a boat which helps us to cross the ocean of sin.]

Lord said:

This imperishable yoga was taught by me to the Sun God,
He taught it to Manu his son, and Manu told it to Ikshuvaku. 1

Kingly sages inherited this knowledge,
Oh, tormentor of enemies, but this great knowledge
Eventually disappeared from the world. 2

Since you are my friend as well as my devotee,
This old knowledge is being told by me to you today,
Even though this knowledge is a great secret. 3

Arjuna asked:

How can I accept this in my mind,
When I know that you were born,
Much later than the sun god,
And you claim to have taught him this? 4

Lord said:

Oh Arjuna, the tormentor of enemies,
I know that I and you have passed through,
Several births and deaths so far,
And also I know, you do not know about it. 5

Though I am birth less and deathless,
And also the god of all the beings that are born,
I have full control on my innate nature,
And appear similar to this form, by use of illusion.* 6
* Word illusion is being used for Maya.

Oh Bharatha, whenever the righteousness suffers,
And wickedness raises its head,
Then I create myself by my own illusion,
And appear from time to time to save Dharma. 7

I come in to this world, myself from eons to eons,
For protecting the righteous,
And for destroying the wicked,
And also to establish righteousness. 8

Oh Arjuna, he, who knows correctly,
The fact of my divine births and duties,
Would not have one more birth after his death,
But would come directly to me and attain me. 9

Many of those who do not have desire, fear and anger
Many of those who have become mine,
And many of those who have surrendered to me,
Become purified by the sacred flame of knowledge,
And eventually would come and attain me. 10

I bless my devotees in the way,
In which they choose to worship me,
And Oh Arjuna, in whichever way they choose,
It is my way in all respects entirely. 11

Desiring for good rapid results of action done,
In this world they worship the gods,
For in the man's world the results,
Of action are received very rapidly. 12

I propounded the four fold differences in men
According to their inborn nature and choice of action,
Though I am the one who is the author,
Understand me as stable and the one who is not the doer. 13

He who knows that actions,
Do not get attached to me,
And that I do not have,
Any attachment towards results of actions,
Is never chained or tied by any action. 14

Understanding this great tenet,
Our forefathers who wanted salvation,
Did do several such actions,
And so carry out actions like those of your ancestors. 15

Even greatly wise people are befuddled,
In classifying action from inaction,
And I will tell you about that action,
Which would make you free from bad things. 16

Lots have to be learned about actions that has to be done,
Lots have to be learned about action which should not be done,
Lots have to be learned about inaction,
And so it is difficult to charter the path of this differentiation. 17

That man indeed is greatly intelligent,
Who sees inaction in action,
And action in inaction,
And he being a greatly Wise man,
Would do all his actions with a peaceful mind. 18

That man whose actions are devoid,
Of sensory gratification and determination
Is the one in whom the fire of his wisdom,
Has burnt his actions and is declared as ‘learned',
By those who have very great wisdom. 19

He forsakes interest in results of his actions,
And is always satisfied with his life,
And also does not depend on any one,
And is seen to indulge in concentrated action,
But is perceived as one who does not do anything. 20

He is without any desires and controls his mind and body,
He forsakes ownership of all assets and only does,
Those actions which are absolutely necessary,
And never suffers any bad effects at any time. 21

He becomes happy with anything that he gets accidentally,
He is the one, who has crossed the state of duality,
He is without jealousy, has same emotions towards victory and defeat,
And he does not get tied up by his action in spite of doing it. 22

He is always without attachment, free from everything,
And concentrates his mind on wisdom only,
And his actions done with the spirit of sacrifice,
Vanish because they are completely dissolved. 23

The act of sacrifice is God,
The material that is being sacrificed is God,
This material is being sacrificed in fire which is god,
This sacrifice that is being performed is by God,
And so the one who attains the Samadhi,
By performing actions, attains God. 24

Brahman is translated here as God though it has a wider and much fuller meaning.
‘Samadhi' is the state in which one becomes one with God.

Some yogis perform sacrifices to please gods,
And others sacrifice their soul in the fire of ultimate God,
And conduct the sacrifices using ultimate God. 25

Here Brahman is translated as Ultimate God, to differentiate it from
the concept of Gods in the first line.

Yet others sacrifice their organs of hearing,
In the fire of self control and yet others,
Sacrifice their organs of speech,
In the fire of sense organs. 26

Others sacrifice activities of all sense organs,
And all activities of the soul,
In the fire of self control,
Burning them by the aid of the light of wisdom. 27

There are yet others, who sacrifice money,
Or penance or yoga or recitation of Vedas,
Others who take up austere vows,
With unflagging and unflinching devotion. 28

There are others, who sacrifice outgoing breath,
In the incoming breath or incoming breath
In out going breath and others who
Stop inhaling and exhaling and hold their breath. 29

Some others control their food and sacrifice,
Breathe in to breath and all these people,
Who know what a sacrifice is
Are purified by the methods adopted by them. 30

Oh great one among the kurus, those who eat,
The remnants of food offered in sacrifices attain
The perennial godhead and there is no world
For those who do not perform sacrifices. 31

There are several methods of sacrifices,
Spread before us by the great Vedas,
Please understand that they are a part of our actions,
And understanding this gets you freedom from chains of life. 32

Oh tormentor of enemies, understand that,
The sacrifices of wisdom is superior to those of wealth,
For, hey Arjuna, Wisdom fulfills the entire gamut of actions
And eventually ends up in the earning of divine knowledge. 33

Please learn and understand this,
With humility, with enquiry and with service,
From those wise men who have realized the truth,
Who will instruct you in this type of wisdom. 34

Oh Pandava, Once you understand this wisdom,
You would not be troubled by illusions of this sort,
And because of that you would see all beings
Of the world within me and within you. 35

Even if you are the greatest sinner possible,
Among all the sinners of the world,
You would cross all the sins of yours,
With the help of this boat of wisdom. 36

Similar to the fact that a raging fire,
Turns in to ashes all the wood that is on its way,
The fire of wisdom would turn
All your actions in to ashes. 37

In this world there is no greater,
Purifier than the wisdom that one has,
And over time the one who learns yogas,
Becomes an ace and automatically gets it. 38

He who is in search of wisdom,
He who controls all his sense organs,
And he who learns everything with sincerity,
Attains the state of great wisdom,
And after attaining that state soon, he attains great peace. 39

He who is not wise, he who does not believe,
And he who always doubts everything.
Will eventually perish and
This world does not exist for them who doubts,
And also the other worlds and pleasure,
Does not exist for them for ever. 40

Oh Arjuna, the one who destroys actions by yoga,
The one who breaks doubts using his wisdom,
And the one who stands self possessed,
Are not stopped by duties or actions. 41

And so cut this doubt about the soul,
Born out of ignorance with,
The sword of wisdom and,
Be stable in the state of yoga. 42

Thus ends the Fourth Chapter of Bhagwad Gita,
Which is the Essence of all Upanishads,
Which is the Science of the Eternal and Yoga,
And the dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna,
Which is called The State of Action, Wisdom and Renunciation.

Renunciation of Action

[Arjuna wants clarification as to the need for practice of action, when one is not interested in its results. Lord Krishna tells him that nobody can remain without doing any action and also that the ultimate self does not participate in the performance of action. He re-emphasizes the importance of renouncing results of action.]

Arjuna asked:

You praise renunciation of action,
As well as the practice of the path of action,
Please take a decision yourself,
And tell me which of them is better? 1

Lord said:

Renunciation as well as path of action
Will both take you to the higher state in life,
But among them path of positive action
Is better than renunciation of action. 2

The one who does not hate or desire is a hermit,
And so the one who gets freedom from
Plurality of action easily gets freedom
From the ties of day to day life. 3

Ignorant children would say that knowledge,
Is very different from action with renouncement,
But the learned would not agree with them,
For any one who concentrates on any of these,
Would get the results from what he chose.. 4

That state which is attained by discriminative logic,
Is also attained by the practice of positive action,
He who sees discriminative logic and positive action,
As the same is the one who really sees. 5

Oh heroic one, renunciation of action is very difficult,
Without first performing selfless positive action,
And it is also true that one who is wedded to action,
Attains the ultimate more quickly and speedily. 6

He who is engaged in selfless action,
Who has a very clean and clear mind,
Who has won over the hankerings of the body,
Who has total control over his senses,
And who sees himself in all beings,
Is not tainted by action even if he does it. 7

The man who is a true practitioner,
Of the path of selfless action,
Feels that he is not doing any action,
Even during the time he sees, he hears,
He touches, he smells, he eats,
He walks, he sleeps or even when he breaths. 8

When one talks or leaves what he holds,
Or holds on tightly, or opens his eyes,
Or closes his eyes, he determines,
That these are because senses are
Performing the job towards the sense objects,
And not because he has done any of them. 9

He who does all his actions, sacrificing them,
To the godhead and without any desires,
Is not affected by it, similar to the fact,
That lotus leaf does not become wet because of water. 10

The learned and wise men forsake all attachment,
And carry out actions with body or mind or brain,
Or senses without the sense of the feeling of I,
For purifying their mind and soul. 11

He who does positive action, leaves out
The fruits of his action and attains,
Mental stability and peace by practice of such action,
But the one who does actions for achieving results
Is bound by the expectations of the results that he wishes. 12

The one who has mastered control over his senses,
Does renunciation of all actions and exists peacefully,
And happily in the city with nine holes,*
Doing nothing and is getting done nothing. 13
*the body

The God was never an actor, nor did he create persons,
Nor did he create actions, nor unification of actions with results,
And all these are controlled only by universal ignorance 14

The god does not receive the sins of any one,
Nor does he accept good deeds done by people,
And this knowledge is hidden by ignorance,
And because of it, beings get under delusion 15

In those whom ignorance is destroyed,
Due to the knowledge of the soul,
Their wisdom shines like a bright sun,
And throws light on the highest being. 16

Those whose mind is set on God,
Those who think God is their soul,
Those who remain in the concept of God,
And those who consider God as their refuge,
Attain the state of no return,
With their sins being winnowed off by wisdom. 17

The learned view with equanimity,
The humble or a wise Brahmin,
Or a cow, or an elephant or a dog,
Or the one who eats a dog. 18

Those whose mind stands with equanimity,
Have won over re-birth here in this world itself,
For the ultimate truth is equal and faultless,
And due to that they stay with the ultimate truth. 19

He who realizes the ultimate truth,
Would have a very stable mind,
Would be devoid of any desires,
Would attain the life he likes,
Would not get elated with joy,
Or get sorry when he gets what he dislikes. 20

He who does not have attachment,
To the pleasure provided by the external,
Realizes the pleasure given by the soul,
And with his mind standing with ultimate truth,
He realizes the bliss, which never decays. 21

Oh son of Kunthi, those pleasures from the external,
Are really the birth places of all sorrows,
For they have a beginning and an end,
And so the wise man will not derive joy from them. 22

He who has strength to control emotions,
Caused due to passion and anger,
Even before he leaves his own body,
Is the one who is steadfast in yoga,
And he is the only human being who enjoys. 23

He who has well being within him,
He who has joy within himself,
He who is enlightened within himself,
That Yogi is the Brhamam even when he is alive,
And would get salvation by becoming absolutely free. 24

Those sages within whom, sins erode,
Within whom doubts fade away,
Within whom senses are under control,
And who wants only to do well to all others,
Would get salvation with absolute freedom. 25

Those sages who get freedom from desire and anger,
Who have mind which is peaceful and contended,
And who are able to realize their souls,
Would get salvation within this and in other worlds. 26

He who is able to keep external pleasures outside,
Concentrate his gaze in between the eyebrows,
Keep the airs of inhalation and exhalation equally within his nose,
Controls his mind, senses and thought completely,
Desires nothing except the true and ultimate salvation,
Is bereft of desire, fear and anger always,
And tries to engage himself in meditation,
Is always free from everything. 27-28

Thus ends the Fifth Chapter of Bhagwad Gita,
Which is the Essence of all Upanishads,
Which is the Science of the Eternal and Yoga,
And the dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna,
Which is called The Renunciation of Action.

Art of Meditation

[In this chapter Lord Krishna tells about the techniques of yoga and meditation and tells him that, it is a superior method.]

Lord Krishna said:

He who carries out all his duties,
Without depending on the outcome,
And not the one who has forsaken fire,*
Or the one who does not do any action,
Is a great yogi or one who has renounced. 1
*Who has discontinued fire sacrifices

Oh Pandava, understand the word yoga,
As indicative of renunciation also,
For no one can become a great yogi,
Without relinquishing the fruits of actions from his mind. 2

For the sage who wants to climb up,
The ladder of Yoga, action is a must,
And only for the one who has attained yoga,
Inaction is said to be the means to retain it. 3

When surely there is no desire,
To those things hankered by senses,
When there is no thinking for fruit of actions,
He would have renounced everything,
And would be called a great yogi. 4

One should elevate oneself by one's self,
One should not ever lower oneself,
And surely self alone is one's friend,
And self alone is one's enemy, 5

He who has attained victory over self,
For him self is a very great friend,
And for the one who has not won over the self,
Self is a very great enemy, 6

For him who has won over his self,
Who is eternally peaceful within him self
Heat and cold are very much alike,
And so are sorrows and happiness
And honour and dishonour and he would,
Be always blessed with presence of the divine. 7

That yogi who becomes satiated,
By wisdom and his experiences,
Is immobile, a victor over his senses,
And would consider mud, stone and gold,
As one and the same and equal. 8

He becomes very special and great,
If he has the same relation with,
Good people, friends, enemies,
People who are neutral or middle,
People who hate or love,
And even people who are really bad. 9

That yogi should concentrate his mind,
Sitting alone with control over mind and body,
With no desires, with no wealth or assets,
And try to meditate and keep his mind stable, 10

He should choose a very clean place,
Which does not move, which is neither high nor low,
And spread skin and cloth over Durba grass,
And sit there concentrating his mind. 11

Sitting on that seat, with concentration of mind,
And controlling the works of mind and senses,
He should practice yoga for cleaning his mind. 12

Keeping his body, head and neck straight,
Adopting the position of no movement,
Becoming stable, without seeing here and there,
Concentrating vision on the tip of his nose,
With mind fully not roaming here and there,
Without fear, observing self continence,
Controlling his mind, thinking of only me,
He should have me as his supreme goal. 13-14

That practitioner of yoga, who concentrates,
With a controlled mind attains that peace,
Which is at the end of salvation,*
And which is situated in me. 15
* I have used salvation to denote Moksha

Oh Arjuna, Yoga is not there,
For the one who eats too much,
Or the one who eats nothing at all.
It also is not there for the one,
Who loves to sleep and to him,
Who does not sleep at all, 16

To him who is moderate in his,
Food habits, walks, action,
Sleep and wakefulness,
Yoga helps to wipe away sorrow. 17

He is said to have attained yoga,
When his self controlled mind,
Remains always fixed in the self,
And is free of all desires and joys. 18

The wise men compare the non flickering,
Lamp kept in a windless place,
To the controlled mind of the yogi,
Practicing yoga within his self. 19

One should know that, that is called yoga,
When the mind which is controlled,
By practice of concentration, gets settled,
In which the self seeks the self and realizes the self,
And gets happiness in the self itself,
In which that state of bliss is realized,
Which is limitless, known only to the intellect,
Which is beyond the reach of senses,
In which one establishes himself,
And never moves down from it,
Which position once attained,
Makes one feel that no other gain,
Is better than that state,
And which position once attained,
Makes one feel that no great sorrow is worth worrying about.
This type of yoga which is worth practicing,
Should be learnt with strong mind and perseverance. 20-23

After controlling all desires which are born,
Out of the working of the mind, fully,
After preventing the sense organs,
From all sides, by use of the mind,
And using the wisdom along with courage,
You have to get peace slowly and surely.
You should make the mind position itself in the self,
And should not think of anything at all, 24-25

When the listless and unstable,
Mind wanders hither and thither,
It should be brought under control,
By using the self alone, 26

To the yogi with a peaceful mind,
Whose active pride has subdued,
Who is sinless and who has,
Become God himself,
Undiluted bliss surely reaches 27

This yogi who is free from a tainted mind,
Who can control his mind always,
Attains the infinite bliss of union with the ultimate, 28

This man who is always absorbed in yoga,
Has a mind which sees the same Brahman,
In all the things that he sees,
And realizes that Brahman is made of all things, 29

He who sees me everywhere,
Sees everything within me,
Is always able to see me,
And I am able to see him always, 30

He who worships me, who am in all beings,
In the spirit of being single entity, is a yogi,
And wherever he is and whatever he does,
He always lives with me, 31

I believe that, he is best among yogis,
Oh Arjuna, Who sees other's pleasure and pain,
In the same way, as if it occurs to himself. 32

Arjuna asked:

Oh killer of Madhu, because my mind is in turmoil,
I am not able to understand this state,
Where everything is observed as equal and same,
And which is also permanent and stable, 33

Oh Krishna, Is not the mind always unstable,
Turbulent, restless, leading to pain
And something that cannot be controlled?
I think controlling it is as difficult as controlling wind. 34

Lord said:

Oh Arjuna, there is no doubt that,
Mind is restless and difficult to control,
But Oh son of Kunthi, it can be controlled,
By practice and detachment, 35

I believe that to him who cannot control his mind,
The practice of Yoga is extremely difficult to attain,
But if you practice with willingness and control,
It can be attained by practice of proper methods 36

Arjuna said:

Oh Lord Krishna, The one who has deep faith,
But lacks will to put in sufficient effort,
Slips away during the practice of Yoga,
And since he cannot get the fruits of yoga,
What does he eventually attain? 37

Oh God, who is a great hero, does he who fails.
Not fall from both ways that he tries to the ultimate,
And like a split and scattered cloud vanish? 38

Oh Lord Krishna, I do not find any one,
Capable of completely answering,
This question of mine except yourself,
For is it not difficult to find people to solve problems? 39

Lord said:

Oh Arjuna, Such a one is not destroyed here.
And is also not destroyed after this life,
Oh son, any one who does only good,
Would never ever attain a bad state, 40

The one who slips and fails in the path of yoga,
Would reach the land meant for people with good deeds,
Live there happily for several years,
And is born in a house of the pure and prosperous, 41

Or he is born in the clan of wise Yogis,
And such a birth is indeed rare in the world, 42

There he attains the use of wisdom,
Which was there in his previous body,
And son of Kurus, striving more than before,
He attains a state higher than earlier. 43

Though he does not understand
The practices of his previous birth,
He gets surely attracted to them,
And even one who tries to understand yoga,
Crosses the limit of the performer of Vedic rites 44

But that yogi who practices steadfastly.
Gets the sins removed from him,
And gets better and better attainment,
In succeeding births and
Slowly reaches the greatest possible state, 45

Yogis are greater than sages,
Also greater than the learned,
Also greater than the performer of actions,
And so it is believed, he is great,
And so become a yogi, Oh Arjuna, 46

I have concluded firmly that the one,
Who salutes me with sincerity and
With his mind absorbed in me,
Is the greatest among yogis, 47

Thus ends the Sixth Chapter of Bhagwad Gita,
Which is the Essence of all Upanishads,
Which is the Science of the Eternal and Yoga,
And the dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna,
Which is called The Art of Meditation.

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