Samkshepa Dharma Shastra

XXVII. Brahma Yagna Vidhi
(Rules of Brahma Yagna)

1. Bharadwaja:
After scratching on the back of the cow, going round and saluting the Peepul tree, you have to go near the elders and teachers and salute them by falling at their feet. Then we have to do Brahma Yagna,

2. Shruthi:
The Vedas say that the man who intends to do Brahma Yagna should go to the east,north or north east of the village, go out of the village till you do not see any homes, choose a clean area and do Brahma Yagna.

3. Kaladarsa:
Brahma Yagna should be done either in the morning or noon. If it is to be done in the morning, first do Sandhya Vandana and Oupasana and then only do it. If it is at noon, it should be done after performing Madhyahneeka. Then you have to do Deva, Rishi Pithru Tharpanam,or Brahma Yagna can be done after performing Vaiswa Deva.

4. Aapasthambha:
Before lunch, clean yourself, go near a water body and perform Brahma Yagna.

5. Paiteenasee:
Chanting one's own Veda is called Brahma Yagna. He who is interested in Brahma Yagna would attain the world of Brahma.

6. Haaritha:
A Brahmin should sit on Dhurba grass, and wear Dhurba Grass and do Brahma Yagna as per rule with concentration.
Commentary by the author of Samkshepa Dharma Sastra.
He should do Sankalpa chanting "Brahma Yagnena Yakshye.. ", clean his hands with water chanting "Vidhyudasi.. ", wash his left hand and leg with water, do Aachamana thrice, wipe his lower lips with water, touch his head, eyes, noses, ears and chest, sit in the lotus pose on a Dhurba grass seat, wear Pavithra, chant Gayathri mantra followed by recitation of Vedas. He should start the next day from the place he stopped the previous day. It should be completed by chanting thrice "Namo Brahmane"

7. Samgruhe:
In Brahma Yagna, after meditating on Lord Vishnu, Purusha Suktha has to be chanted. This would give the benefit of reading Vedas with all its branches. Those rituals which are to be performed in the day time can be performed till the end of the First Yama at night. But In case of Brahma Yagna and Soorya Namaskara, it should be performed only in day time.

XXVIII. Dwitheeya Bhaga Kruthyani
(Those rituals that are to be performed in the second part.)

The second part of the day is one and half hours after sunrise. This section gives the duties to be done after that.

1. Yagnavalkya:
After doing Oupasana Homa, we should chant the mantras of Sun God. Then we have to meditate on Vedas, Then we should teach what we know to those who want to know. We should also collect flowers, Dhurba grass and Samith (small dry sticks of Peepul tree).
We should pluck the leaves of Thulasi chanting
Mokshaika hetho, dharani prasoothe, vishno samasthasya guro priyethe,
Aaradhanartham purushothamasya lunami pathram, thulasi Kshamaswa 1
The cause of our salvation,, the mother of all earth,
The one dear to Lord Vishnu and all elders,
For the sake of worshipping the greatest God,
I am plucking your leaves, please pardon.
Praseeda mama devesi, praseeda hari vallabhe,
Ksheerodaya madanoth bhute, thulasi thwam praseeda may. 2
Be pleased with me my goddess,
Be pleased with me, Oh consort of Hari,
Be pleased me, Oh one born when the ocean was churned,
And Oh Thulsi, be pleased with me.
Thulasi leaves should not be plucked on Tuesday, Friday, month beginning, year beginning and in the after noons. It also should not be plucked on Sankramana days, full moon, New moon, Dwadasi, nights and dusk, If done you would get the sin of hurting the head of Lord Vishnu.

XXIX. Thritheeya Chathurtha Bhagayo Kruthyani
(Duties in the third and fourth part)

To be done between 9 AM to 11.30 AM.

1. Haaritha:
You should earn money to look after those who should be protected by you in the proper Shastric way. We can also ask for this money from kings who are just.
The people who should be protected are mother, father, teacher, wife, child and servant, those who seek our protection, Wayfarer, Guests and fire. Also people of our clan, relations poor people and those who have been driven out by their relations also need to be protected. Protecting them is a meritorious act. We would reach good worlds after our death by protecting them.
The only man who is alive is the one on whom his relations depend and live. The other one who earns money for himself is like a dead man.

2. Shankha:
The morning Sandhya Vandana should be done when stars are still there in the sky. Five hours after this, after taking the noon bath, Madhyahneekam (noon prayer) should be observed. The evening Sandhya vandana should be done when half the sun has set. The water offering (argya) should be done once during Madhyahneekam, then after Dhyana and Gayathri Japa, the Tharpana for Devas, Rishis and manes should be done.

3. Vyasa:
If Brahma Yagna is not done in the morning it should be done after Madhyahneeka. Then the Tharpanam should be done for satisfying Devas, Rishis and manes. For Tharpana for rishis and devas water with akshatha (rice) should be used. But in case of manes water mixed with Gingelly should be used. In case of Tharpana for devas, the sacred thread should be worn over the left shoulder (upaveethi), for Tharpana addressed to Rishis, the sacred thread should be worn as Garland and in the case for manes the sacred thread should be on right shoulder (Pracheena Vidhi) The Tharpana should be done once for Devas, twice for Rishis and three times for manes.

4. Haritha:
The man who knows shastras should wear dry clothes, sit on dry Dhurba grass and do Tharpanam. Tharpana should never be done in to another vessel. The Tharpana with Gingelly should be done only outside the house. The weak person can do it within the home. He can offer water offerings in to another vessel. But he should not use earthern vessel. In times when we are barred from doing Tharpana it can be done using water mixed with rice. Devas and Pithrus like the water offerings. So if the sons do not do Tharpana, they will go back disappointed and we would be subject to their curse.

XXX. Deva Pooja
(Worship of Gods)

1. Chandrika:
You have to first do all rituals prescribed and then do Agnihothra and then worship lord Vasudeva.

2. Haaritha:
After doing Sandhya Vandanam, Oupasanam, Brahma Yagnam, and Soorya Namaskarams, we have to worship Gods.

3. Vignaneswara:
In the noon after doing Tharpana and after collecting Chandana, flower and Akshatha (rice) depending on ones devotion, you have to worship either Brahma or Vishnu or Shiva using Vedic Manthras and with names with prefix Nama. You have to pray Lord Sun for health, pray Lord fire for wealth, pray Maheswara for intelligence and Pray Janardhana for salvation.

4. Manu:
The householder should either worship Sun God or Lord Vishnu or Lord Parameshwara or Lord Brahma using Vedic mantras. You can also worship all of them or more than one of them.

5. Sangraha:
The householder who performs the Pancha Maha Yagna (five great sacrifices) should specially worship Sun or Ambika or Vishnu or Ganapathi or Maheswara.

XXXI. Vishnu Pooja
(Worship of Lord Vishnu)

1. Narada:
Lord Vishnu shines in sacrificial fire to those who do fire sacrifices, In Sun for those who do formless worship, in Salagrama stones for those involved in domestic life and in the heart to those Yogis who meditate. In the places where Salagrama and Dwathawathi stones are there, salvation and Purushartha are there. People who die near Salagrama stone would get rid of all attachments and attain salvation. In the Salagrama stone Lord Vishnu along with Goddess Lakshmi live for ever. So you should not do Prathishta (consecration), Aavahanam (putting in to) and Visarjanam (putting out) to such stones. Purusha Suktha is specially suited for worship of Lord Vishnu. There are 18 Riks (manthras) of this suktha in Krishna Yajur Veda. Out of which 15 are set to Anushtup meter and three are set to Thrishtup meter and the devatha is Narayana. Each of the 18 Riks of Purusha Suktha in Yajur Veda has separate Rishis and Devathas. The eighteen acts of worship namely Avahanam (putting in to, Asanam (giving seat), Padhyam (giving water to wash feet), Arghyam (giving water) Achamanam (inner cleanliness) Madhuparkam (preliminary offering of a compound of honey), Snanam (bath) Vasthram (offering of cloth, Upaveetham (offering of sacred thread), Chandanam (offering of sandal wood), Pushpam (Offering of flowers), Dhoopam (offering of incense), Dheepam (offering of light) Naivedyam (offering of food) Thamboolam (offering of betel leaf) Pradakshinam (perambulation) and Namaskarams (salute) should each be done by reciting one Rik. Afterwards, Deeparadhana (worship with light) should be done and Manthra Pushpa chanted. These are besides the 18 part worship indicated above. In Rik Veda the worship should be done by 16 Riks.

2. Apararka:
We have to worship God using Ashtakshara with sandal, flowers and other homage. This is dear to the God. "Om Namo Narayanaya" is a great Manthra. With this you can attain good effects which cannot be attained even by meditation, name chanting, Thapas and Yaga

3. Pulasthya:
Like butter and curd comes out of milk, by doing Abhisheka (ritual bath) of Lord Vishnu, you will realize all that you want. People who apply saffron, Akil (incense), musk and sandalwood paste on the idol of the God would be able to live in heaven for one crore years.

4. Aachaara sara:
Flowers which are white and red or blue and red are very close to the heart of Lord Krishna. Kadamba, Vakula, Sugandhi (Makizham poo) and Kalhara (chenkazhuneer) are dear to the God. If you worship with these flowers you would shine well in Vaikunta.

5. Moudgalya:
Even if you worship Lord Krishna once with Bilwa leaves, you would reach near him and be without any sorrow. He who worships Lord Krishna with sweet smelling Thulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaves and completely covers the idol, he would attain all comforts.

6. Samvartha:
He who lights a lamp in the temple, in the house of a Brahmin or in the street junction would become wise and get very good eye sight. Cooked rice, sugar mixed with ghee, payasa made of wheat, cooked rice mixed with milk or ghee, curd, milk honey, fruits, edible roots, vegetables and modhakas should be offered to the God. Offering cooked rice in milk (havis) all the three times is very good. Offering it twice is moderate and offering it only once is Adhama (bad). Afterwards we have to offer Thamboola (betel leaf), worship with lamp, Manthra pushpam, Pradhakshina (perambulations) and Namaskara (saluting) and drink the theertha (water offering to God).

XXXII. Shiva Pooja
(Shiva worship)

1. Koorma Purana:
We have to be pure in body and mind before worshipping Lord Shiva. Chant Rudra Gayathri, or Pranava (Om) or Eeasana manthra or Sri Rudra or Thrayambaka and make pooja offerings to the God. Worship lord Shiva with flowers, Bilwa leaves and sandalwood paste. He can be worshipped by Panchakshara (Om Nama Shivaya) which is the king of all Manthras.

2. Nandikeswara:
The good effect of worshipping Shiva linga for one day is more than that of giving millions of milch cows to Brahmins who are expert in Vedas.

3. Chandrika:
The seeing of Shiva linga gives Punya. Touching it gives more and worshipping it more than that and meditating and saluting of Shiva Linga much more than that. The effect of worshipping Shiva Linga once a month is more than that of one who keeps Vrutha and eats only once in a month.

4. Smrithi Rathna:
The ceremonial bath (abhisheka) of Lord Shiva once with milk has equal effect as giving in charity 10000 milch cows to Vedic Pundits. He who gives ceremonial bath to Lord Shiva with curd on the Krishnashtami day clears the seven generations of his manes and goes to heaven. Giving Ceremonial bath with ghee to the God burns the sins committed by us in thousand Kalpa years like a fire burns a dry piece of wood. Giving ceremonial bath with milk, ghee, honey or sugar along with chants of Eesadhi mantras would lead one to salvation. He who gives ceremonial bath to God with sweet smelling sandal paste would reach the land of Gandharwas and would be worshipped by Gandharwas. Lord Shiva likes Abhisheka. Doing Abhisheka with scented oil leads to good effects.
After the bath, make the God wear sweet scented cloth with zari border, It should be new and should not have human hair in it. He who worships Lord Shiva with sacred thread, sandal paste, ornaments and flowers shines in the world of Shiva. Lord Shiva should be worshipped by forest flowers, Bilwa leaves and flowers from or own garden. Pandanus flower (thazham poo) is not suitable for worship of Lord Shiva. Offering Bilwa leaves with chanting of Panchakshara (Om Nama Shivaya) would take you to the presence of Lord Shiva. Afterwards he should be worshipped with incense, light and later should be given the food offering (Naivedyam). He would live in the heaven for as many thousands of Yugas as the number of rice in the Naivedyam. He who prepares Naivedyam with Jaggery, Ghee and also offers foods prepared in ghee, would get benefit more than giving very costly things as alms. After this Thamboola (betel leaf) should be offered and Dheepa Aradhanai (worship with lamp) done. Then Pradakshina (perambulations), Namaskara (offering of salute), Stotra (reciting of prayers) narthana (offering of dance) etc should be done

5. Parasara:
The thought that Guru (teacher) is after all a man, Linga is after all a stone and manthras are after all sound should never occur. If it occurs it would be a great sin.

XXXIII. Vaiswa Deva Homa
(Offering in the Fire)

1. Haareetha:
A Brahmin after worshipping God using Purusha suktha, should perform Vaiswadeva homa and Bali Karmas daily.

2. Chandrikaa:
That fire which has been used for cooking should be used to perform Vaiswa deva. The man who takes food without doing Vaiswa deva eats sins.

3. Thathparya Darshana:
Vaiswadeva is more important than Pancha Maha Yagnas (the five great sacrifices). It is an entirely different ritual. Both these are dealt differently in Vedas.

4. Yama:
The householder has five points of causing harm. That is Khandini (that which is used to powder and cut), Peshini (that which is used to grind), Chullee (the stove), Jala Kumbha (pot used to store water) and Upaskara (that which is used to winnow). These are the five points which can cause harm. These are used daily to cook food. Because these are used, daily human beings are subject to sin. So they definitely have to do Pancha Maha Yagnas (Five great sacrifices)

5. Prajapathi:
The householders should do Vaiswadeva and Bali harana daily to get rid of sins accumulated by use of the five points of harm.
The elders first consecrate fire, do Vaiswadeva sacrifice and offer Samith (dried sticks) chanting the eight mantras starting with "Deva kruthasya". Because of this they get rid of their sins.

6. Aapasthamba:
In the Oupasana fire or the fire used for cooking Annam (cooked rice) should be taken by hand and offered to the fire six times chanting
i. Agnaye swaha
ii. Somaya swaha
iii. Viswebhyo devebhyo swaha
iv. Druvaya bhoomaya swaha.
v. Druvakshithaye swaha and
vi. Achyuthakshithaye swaha.
Afterwards once more chanting Swishtakruthaye swaha.

7. Gowathama:
People who follow Sama Veda should do five Homas in the fire used for cooking for Agni, Dhanvanthari, Viswadeva, Prajapathi and Swishtakruth.

8. Kathyayana:
We have to do five homas for Brahma, Prajapathi, Gruhya, Kasyapa and Anumathi along with chanting of Swaha.
Vaiswadeva sacrifice should be performed according to the rules laid for our branch-nothing more and nothing less, thus says Veda Vyasa.
If the flames do not come in the Homa fire, Vaiswadeva should not be performed. If it is done otherwise, Manu tells that the eye sight of the performer will be affected.

9. Vyasa:
The Havis (cooked rice) should be mixed with ghee or it could be either mixed with curd or milk. If these are not available even water can be mixed. Oil or other pungent articles should never be mixed. If you are dong Homa with cooked vegetables,, some people do it at the northern side.

10. Chathur vimsathi pratha:
If Havis in the form of rice is not available, fruits, vegetables, water, milk, curd and ghee can be used to do Vaiswa deva sacrifice. While the solids should be taken by hands the liquids should be taken by spoons made of leaves, but if water is being used, then the Homa should only be performed in water.

11. Aapasthamba:
The people who prepare rice for Vaiswadeva sacrifice should be neat and respected. Women can cook for Vaiswadeva.

12. Chandrika:
The Baliharana should be performed at the top side of the fire. The procedure should be as per the practice of our branch.

13. Yagnavalkya:
Bhootha bali dhana should be performed by rice remaining after the homa for devas. Bali harana is meant for all beings. For the dog, debased human beings and crow, the bali harana should be kept on the floor. At last the vessel holding the rice should be washed and the water poured in the north eastern corner.

14. Vyasa:
Daily Vaiswadeva has to be performed. This is Devi Yagna. With rice remaining after the Homa we have to do Bali Harana. This is a Bhootha Yagna. This causes good to all beings. Performing Bali with manes (Pithrus) in mind or feeding a Brahmin for pleasing The Pithrus is Pithru Yagna. So there are three yagnas in Vaiswa deva, Since Manushya Yagna and Brahma Yagna are also performed during the Bali, it is really Pancha Maha Yagna (Five great sacrifices). A Brahmin should begin the ritual of Vaiswadeva during day time. This is considered to improve our soul as well as our food.
For a family which is not divided al these need to be performed only as a family unit and not individually. But once the assets are divided, the brothers have to perform all rituals individually and separately. Even on the Sradha day after worshipping the Brahmins, Vaiswadeva has to be performed after the Sradha ceremony, with separately cooked rice.

XXXIV. Aathidhavyam

1. Chandrikaa:
After performing Vaiswadeva and Bali Harana, we have to wait for five minutes in our gate for the guest. Once the guest comes, he has to be worshipped and fed.

2. Vyasa:
Daily we have to give to grass to the cow of some one else before taking meals. This called Gavahni. If we do not do this, we will not reach heaven.
The one whose family and Gothra we do not know, the one who is tired after travel, the one who is hungry and one who came at the end of Vaiswadeva is termed as the guest. If one gets a guest like this, he would attain heaven at the end of this life.
The one who is known to us but comes at this time is called Abhyagatha. The one who is stranger is called Athithi.

3. Aapasthambha:
We have to take food only after feeding the guest, children, old people, sick people, and pregnant women.

4. Vishnu Purana:
After performing Vaisva deva, we have to make Sumangalis (married women with husbands living), people who have attained sorrow. Pregnant women, old people and children to take meals first.

5. Parasara:
Sanyasis and Brahmacharis are entitled to a portion of the cooked food. So if we take meals without feeding them, a redemption ceremony called Chandrayanam should be done.
Alms should be given three times to Sanyasis and Brahmacharis. If we can afford we can give more times also.
First you have to give water, then give food and then again water to the Sanyasi. The alms is equivalent to the Meru mountain and the water equivalent to sea.

6. Haaritha:
Daily after worshipping Lord Vishnu, we should give alms to the Sanyasis. We should give alms to Brahmacharis also. We should think the Sanyasi as Lord Vishnu. The shastras say that the house where a Sanyasi takes his food, Lord Vishnu takes his food. If Lord Vishnu takes food, please understand that all the three worlds take their food.

7. Vyasa:
He who gives a full vessel alms to a Yati (Sanyasi), gets rid of all sins committed by him. He would never become poor. He who gives Gold to Sanyasi, uncooked rice to a Brahmachari and cooked rice to a householder will suffer.

8. Parasara:
The guest who comes after Vaisva deva should be welcomed with good words and then worshipped. He should then be given a seat and his feet washed. Later food should be served with sweet and polite words, When he goes back, we should follow him for little distance, You should never enquire from a guest about his learning, clan or Gothra,. We should think that the guest is our God. All Shastras consider guests as God like.

9. Manu:
People with less means should not neglect the guest. If you do not have seat, you can request him to sit on Dhurba grass. If we do not have bed, he can be requested to sleep on the floor. If we do not have oil, water can be given instead. If we do not have food, sweet words can be talked to him.
In the house where a guest feels "Why did I come here?", the Pithrus (manes) would not partake the food offered to them for the next 15 years. The man who disregards guests, would not get rid of his sin even if offers 1000 bundles of holy sticks and 100 pots of Ghee in the Homa fire.

10. Vyasa:
He who with devotion takes care of the guest, who comes dead tired because of the travel and is a stranger to him, gets the benefit of giving away 100 cows which are as big as an elephant.

XXXV. Bhojana Niyama
(Rules of taking food)

1. Manu:
Taking food once in the morning and another at night is the rule for the Brahmins. So he should not take food more than two times. This is equivalent to Agni Hothra. Food should not be taken late at night or at midnight. Even in the morning and night food should not be taken twice.

2. Veda:
Veda says that men should take food only twice in a day.

3. Vyasa:
Wash both hands, legs and face and sit silently facing east to take your meals,

4. Devala:
After washing both hands and legs, and after doing Aachamana twice, we have to sit on a seat facing east to take our meals. Meals should be taken only after doing Aachamana. If you happen to take food without doing Aachamana, then redemption should be done. That is we have to chant Gayathri Manthra 1008 times.

5. Aathreya:
In a clean place, after applying cow dung in a figure with four corners (called Mandala), we have to make a design to keep the plate or leaf. You have to eat keeping the plate or leaf on that design.

6. Sankha:
The Adithyas, Vasus, Rudras, Brahma and manes depend on the Mandala. So you have to take food after making Mandala,

7. Athri:
A Brahmin should sit on a seat keeping his feet on earth. One who sits like that and eats in silence gets the same effect of not taking food for three days. A Brahmin who keeps his legs on a seat, and puffs air by mouth on the food to cool it down, gets the sin of eating the meat of a cow.

8. Manu:
He who eats facing east gets long life. He who eats facing south gets fame. He who eats facing west gets wealth. He who desires truth should face north while eating. He who has his Pithrus (manes) alive should not face the south while eating. Facing north, while eating is dear to the manes. You should not eat food wearing a turban or with slippers. This would be classified as Aasuram (demonic).

9. Apasthamba:
A Brahmin should wear Pavithram in his right hand while eating food. The man who eats with pavithram will not be affected by bad effects of food. A pavithram made of gold is much better; It could be made of Durbha grass also.

XXXVI. Bhojana Pathrani
(Vessels for eating food)

1. Yoga Yagnavalkya:
Food can be taken in leaf, or vessels made of Brass, Silver or Gold. Depending on the financial status people can make their choice.

2. Prachetha:
Brass Vessel is prescribed only for a house holder. A sanyasi or a Brahmachari should not take food in a brass vessel. They also should not take oil bath or eat Thamboola (Betel leaf).
A householder can take food in a brass vessel or leaves of Jack fruit tree, Mango tree, Banana tree or Bilwa tree and would attain the effect of performing Chandrayana.
He should not take food in leaves of Palasa tree or lotus. If he eats in such leaves, he has to observe Chandrayana.
Sanyasi and Brahmachari can take food in Palasa leaf or lotus leaf. They would get the effect of observing Chandrayana by doing that.

3. Smrithi Chinthamani:
A householder can take food in a clean brass vessel with weight less than 20 palas. He can take food of any quantity in plates weighing above 20 Palas.

4. Vyasa:
If we take food in our hand, cloth, steel vessel, copper vessel or leaves of Banyan, Peepal or Vata (Yerukku in Tamil) leaf he has to observe Chandrayana.

XXXVII. Bhojana Karana Vidhanam
(Method of taking food)

1. Manu:
Food should always be worshipped. We should never find fault with food. The Food that has been worshipped increases the strength and virility of people.

2. Sumanthu:
Food should be served with a ladle and not with hand. You have to worship the served food and do aposanam.

3. Vyasa:
We have to first salute the food and then with folded hands pray "Let me get food like this for ever."

4. Gobhila:
After worshipping food with Vyahruthis and Gayathri, in the morning we should circle it with water telling "Ruthanthwa sathyena Parishanchayami" and in the evening "Sathyam thwarthena Parishanchayami." The remnant of the water which is used to circle the food should not be taken in. If by mistake we drink it, then we have to do Chndrayana. If we touch the food and spread it without doing Aaposanam (taking a sip of water), then the food is equivalent to meat. If you eat then, then we have to observe Chandrayanam.

5. Sounaka:
We have to swallow (not bite) cooked rice five times chanting the five names of Vayu (air) each with Om in the beginning and Swaha at the end. We can push the food inside with the toungue but not bite with teeth.

6. Smrithisara:
We have to take small quantities of rice with thumb, centre finger and ring finger and perform Homa to our face along with the chants. Om Pranaya Swaha, On Apanaya Swaha, Om Vyanaya Swaha, Om Udanaya Swaha and Om Samanaya Swaha.

7. Parasara:
After Parishechanam (sprinkling water round the leaf or plate) and after washing the hand with Udharani (spoon), holding the plate or leaf with the left hand, and after doing aapochana (drinking small quantity of water), you have to perform Prana ahuthi (worship of our own soul) to the five Vayu devathas, You have to be silent and should not bite the rice with your teeth.

8. Ahnikasara Sangaraha by Krishna Bhatta
The Pranahuthi (worship of the soul) should be performed with the left hand touching the leaf or plate. Pranahuthis are five in number, followed by one Athma ahuthi and seventh is Ahuthi to Brahman The six ahuthis are addressed to Surya, Soma, Agni, Vayu and Parjanya,. This was got from a dilapidated palm leaf and is not being practiced presently.

9. Athri:
Drinking water, Payasa or Aapochana with sound is equivalent to drinking alcohol.

10. Vyasa:
Silence means not talking. We should not talk in any language including Sanskrit. We can sing or meditate on Lord Vishnu but not any other Gods. The words of Apasthamba are that we should not chant God's name when we are unclean. When we are eating we are Uchishta (half eating) and so we should not think of any other Gods. When we are eating every hand full of rice we have to say Govinda, Govinda. There need not be any doubt, whether we can chant it when we are unclean. For Lord Vishnu is greatly pure. A householder need not remain silent during entire meals but only till he completes the Pranahuthi. But we should talk according to Dharma and should not talk anything which leads to stoppage of taking food.

11. Shandilya:
Householders need not observe silence during meals. They should do upachara (pleasant words requesting to eat more) for those who are taking food with them.

12. Markandeya:
With concentration first we have to eat a sweet dish. Salty and sour food should be taken in the middle and bitter and Thuvarpu (Tamil word) things afterwards. You have to first take fluids, in the middle hard things and in the end liquids. A man who takes food like this would be healthy and strong.

13. Aapasthambha:
Sanyasi should take eight hand full of food, Vanaprastha sixteen handful of food and householder 32 hand full of food. There is no limit to Brahmachari.

14. Bhodhayana:
You have to do Uthrapochanam (taking small quantity of water after meals), chanting "Brhamani mama Amruthathwaya". This indicates we are joining the soul to the body; He who does this is greater than one who performs all rituals.

15. Parasara:
The food taken by one wearing a turban, or eaten facing the south or keeping his hand to the left side or eaten standing is eaten by Asuras.

16. Vyasa:
He who eats food keeping it in his own hand or eats with great sound or eats with spread fingers is eating food similar to beef. You should not take food sitting on elephant, horses, Chariot, vehicle and camel. You should not eat food in the middle of a cremation ground, temple or in bed. We should not take food which is kept in hand or is on the seat. You should not eat with wet cloths, wet head and without sacred thread. You should not take food with stretched legs, or keeping on hand on the thigh or keeping hands on the leg or sitting on a cot.
You should not take food with head covered with a cloth or keeping food on our lap or wearing only one cloth or wearing slippers and sandals or sitting on an animal hide or sitting on a seat covered with leather. Suppose we take one handful of rice and eat half of it, the other half should not be taken. You should not drink water that is left out in the vessel. We should not eat vegetables and fruits cutting them with teeth. When we are taking food in a company you should not eat faster than others but adjust your speed of eating. You should not waste rice. When we are in the process of eating, we should not go anywhere. If we happen to eat food which is fallen in the ground, we have to observe Chandrayana.

17. Manu:
We should not eat food along with our wife. We should not see our wife while she is eating. We should not see her while she is sneezing or yawning or when she is sitting listlessly.

18. Athri:
If Ghee is not added to the Pranahuthi, it should not be added later. But if it was added before Pranahuthi, it can be again added later.

19. Yama:
When a company of people are taking food together if for reason of love or fear or due to financial status, food is served differently to people by an individual, then he will be subject to Brahma Hathi dosha (Sin of killing a Brahmin)

20. Gomila:
If when people are taking food together, even if one man leaves off touching the food and gets up, all others should stop eating and get up.

21. Parasara:
When people are eating together the sin committed even by one sinner is transferred to every one. There is no sin committed in splitting the group in to more than one.
People say that a company of people taking food can be split by fire, ash, pillar, water, door and way.

22. Smrithi Rathna:
We should not eat on the bed. We should not eat food keeping it on hand or on a seat. You should not blow our nose while eating. We should not angry or shout or turn attention some where else or chide children or see dog or Chandala while eating. We should not ea in the middle of dirty people or eat when others who are not eating food are seeing us or at unseemly time or the food mixed with poison. We should not take food without performing Vaiswadeva. If some body spits on our plate or half eaten food of others fall on our plate, then the food in our plate should be thrown out, the area cleaned with cow dung, and then we can take food in another plate after doing Parishechanam again. There is no sin in doing like this. When Brahmins are taking food together, if one Brahmin touches another, then that food should be thrown out. If we do not do it, later we have to chant Gayathri 108 times. If we become thirsty while taking food, we can drink water with the left hand. But at that time we should touch our leaf or plate with right hand. If we do like this that water is equivalent to nectar. If we do not touch the plate with right hand, then the water is equivalent to blood.

23. Yama:
Cooked rice and other vegetables are to be served only by ladles. But fried food and fruits can be served with hand.

24. Vyasa:
When we are eating or worshipping God or carrying out good functions or meditating or doing Homa or in the middle of a crowd, then we should not blow our nose nor spit from the mouth.

25. Pulasthya:
A wise man should not take food without leaving a little bit. He should keep remains of every food that he eats. But Curd, flour, Ghee, fruits or milk should be completely eaten.

26. Parasara:
If we find that the food that is affected with worms, fly or hair, they should be removed, water sprinkled on them and ash sprinkled over it and then the food can be taken.

XXXVIII. Bhakshya Abhakshya Viveka
(Food those can be eaten and those which cannot be eaten)

1. Manu:
A Brahmin is killed by the God of death due to his not learning Veda, not practicing rituals, laziness and due to sin in eating.

2. Apararka:
Some food belong to bad species, some have bad effects, some become bad over time, some become bad due to company, doubtful food and some have bad character,. These types of food should not be eaten. Garlic, Drum Stick, onion, mushrooms, brinjal, stem of lotus and Bottle gourd belong to bad species. Just because a food is seen by a debased human being it does not become bad. All food in which ghee or oil is not added, get spoiled over time. Cooked rice also becomes bad over time. Curd, Fried food and honey do not get spoiled over time. Food in which toddy or garlic is added and food in which the first ten days milk of a cow is added are bad food. They should not be eaten. Those food which are doubtful, should not be eaten. The cow's milk of the first ten days has a bad character.

3. Parasara:
Milk of the first ten days, white garlic, white brinjal, Grunjanam (?), onion, gum of a tree, property of a temple, mushroom, milk of a camel, and goats milk should not be eaten or drunk. If taken without knowledge, we have to starve for three days and on the fourth day take Panchagavyam.
If White Garlic or white Brinjal is eaten, we have to starve for three days and take Panchagavya on the fourth day. But if we eat black Brinjal or red onion, we have to only starve.

4. Devala:
Even though it is resin, we can eat Asofotida and incense in our food. A man who eats Coccinea, Kalinga (?), lotus stem and Iluppai Poo (?) would not think of Lord Vishnu when he is about to die.

5. Sumanthu:
Garlic, Onion and Grunjana are different forms of onion. If you eat them you have to Chant Gayatri Mantra 1008 times. If again done, this should increase. Any savory or rice to which ghee or oil is added can be eaten, even if it becomes olds. Similary the remnant of the Havis can be eaten, even if it is old.

6. Manu:
Any food which has become sour over time should not be eaten by a Brahmin. But if it is washed with water, it can be eaten. This is told in cases when no other food is available. But the sourness will not make curd unfit. We can drink the milk of cow, goat and Buffalo. If you happen to drink the milk of any other animal you have to starve. To the man who eats Gooseberry fruit at night, fame, wisdom and passion will reduce. So Gooseberry should not be taken at night. Fried grain should not be eaten in the day time. In the night curd, Paddy, fried flour and food prepared by Gingelly should not be eaten. Sour food, Ginger, curd, gruel, gingelly and Saaka (?), should not be eaten at night. If he eats, then he would get the sin of making love to women in periods and his form, words and wealth would be affected.
Tender coconut water and Sugarcane juice which is kept in a bronze vessel should not be drunk. Milk and curd kept in a copper vessel should not be consumed. Milk or ghee in which salt is added should not be consumed, because they are equal to toddy. You should not put salt when others are seeing but it can be added by adding it with some other food. If Agasi leaf (Agathi keerai), Thulasi (ocimum), Gooseberry and Chundakay (A species of brinjal) are in the stomach of a person, Lord Vishnu is near him. He who eats Savories, food and Chutneys after touching them and chanting "Om Namo Narayanaya" would reach heaven. If you happen to eat the food given by Sanyasi, or which is in the vessel of a saint or which is sent by a saint, then you have do Chandrayana.
People eating the food of a proud man, a foolish one, man without character, man with a crooked mind or man who does not bother about anything, gets Sin of Brahma Hathya (killing of a Brahmin). So we should not accept food from such people. People who do not wear sacred thread, blind man, sinner, man who has not learned Vedas, man who sells virgins, poor man, fool, man who insults a Sanyasi, man who performs rituals to those who do not have right to perform, Man who does not have respect, man who tills the ground, Man who does bad acts towards Gods, Man who finds fault with Vedas, Man who wears iron ornaments belonging to Gods and man who sells Soma latha are debased people, So their food should not be eaten.

7. Bharadwaja:
If you eat food from,a Man who does not do rituals and man who does banned acts, then you have to observe fast for one day.

8. Parasara:
If you eat food from one who follows all rituals and one who has learned Vedas, then the sin committed by us during one day is removed.

9. Sathathapa:
You should not eat food from a householder who does not do Homa in Oupasana fire. He is a sinner,

10. Vishnu
Six Pranayamas is the redemption for eating meals in Sradha. One who eats food in Sradha, should chant Gayathri and drink water 10 times before doing evening Sandhyavadana.

11. Vyasa:
In case of solar eclipse food should not be taken within four yamas of the start of eclipse. In case of lunar eclipse, it is three yamas. This rule is not applicable to children, old people and patients.
In the day before a lunar eclipse we should not take food. In case of Solar eclipse, we should not take food in the previous night. If a Brahmin due to ignorance takes food in a place where he should not take food, he should observe Kruchram (?) for one year.

XXXIX. Bhojanathara Karyani
(After meals activities)

After taking half the water in the hand chanting "Amruthabhidanamasi (Let everything become nectar)", the other half of water should be poured on the Bali Chanting the mantra "Rourave.
Rourave Punya nilaye padmarbhudhani vaasinaam,
Ardhinaamudhakam datham akshayaa mupathishtathu.
To those people who live in the hell called Rourava for a long time,
This water is poured so that they would get undying satisfaction.
After this we have to move away from that place and gargle 16 times. The water should be spit towards our left side because the Gods live on the right side of the Brahmins. Gargled water should never be spit on the right side.

1. Gouthama:
After doing Aachamana, we have to again do Aachamana and three times chant the Rik "Ayangou " or "Thruptha". Then we have to rub our hands on each other and touch our eyes with the thumbs of both the hands. He who remembers the king Saryathi, his Daughter Sukanya,, his son in law sage Chyavana, Indra and Aswini devathas after the meals will not get any disease of the eye.

2. Vyasa:
After eating food, we should assume a comfortable pose and then pray to the food. Then we should read, Puranas and Vedas.

3. Daksha:
Between 1.30 PM to 4.30 PM we have to read and learn Vedas, Puranas and Sastras. Then only we should think of the problems of our family. After this we should go to the river bank to do evening Sandhyavandana.

4. Sankha:
While learning Vedas, Puranas and Shastras, we should meditate on Lord Vishnu in the physical form as well the spiritual form. We should never sleep in the afternoon. We should not make love with a woman in the day time. By such sleep your life span would be reduced. Making love in the morning destroys the effect of good deeds done by you. We should not unnecessarily talk and never talk bad about others. You should offer good betel leaf, good betel nut and lime to other Brahmins and also take it yourself. This has to be done after meals. Taking Thamboola always would cause bad effects on the body. Also life span, wisdom, strength, alacrity and power of passion would be reduced. Also the toungue will become insensitive to the taste of food.

XXXX. Rathrou Karthavyani
(Duties at night)

1. Vyasa:
After offering Homa in the fire, do Vaisvadeva and divide the food remnant of the Yagna among family members. Dry both feet and then go to sleep.

2. Bodhayana:
One Ahuthi in the Oupasana fire done in the evening is equal to giving in charity Mountain equivalent gold, performing hundreds of Vajapeya sacrifices and performing the marriage of one crore virgin girls.

3. Shandilya:
The God should be worshipped with large quantity of variety of food both in the morning and evening and various offerings should be made to the God.

4. Sounaka:
In the first part of the night, meditation, yagna and worship of God etc can be done. We can also practice Vedas and take meals. But practice of Vedas and taking meals should not be done in the dead of night. Similarly in the last part of the night i. e in the early morning, meditation, yagna, practicing Vedas and worship of God can be carried out. But you should not take meals.

5. Daksha:
The early part of night and the last part of night should be spent on learning Vedas. The middle period can be spent on sleep. The one, who does like this, reaches the world of Brahma.

6. Gargya:
You should sleep in the bed which is comfortable to you turning to your left side. Sleeping with left hand below oneself gives long life. Sleeping with face upwards gives strength. In our own house our head should face east while sleeping. In father in law's house the head should face south and in places other than our home, we have to keep the head facing west. We should never sleep with our head pointing towards north.

7. Rathnavali:
We should keep water in a pretty pot up o the rim on the side of our head. Before sleeping we should protect ourselves by using Veda Mantras and Garuda Mantras. In the night we have to chant Rathri Suktha, remember about the saints who sleep well, do salutations to Lord Vishnu and then sleep.

8. Manu:
The householder should make love to his wife in the period when she will conceive. (Ruthu Kala). If he has desire to make love other than this time, it can be done during all time except during her periods.

9. Bhodhayana:
We can make love to our wife in the later part of the night also. When we are sleeping we should think of Agasthya, Madhava, Muchukunda, Kapila and Astheeka who are the great sages who sleep well. We should wash our feet dry it, do Aachamana twice, think of Lord Vishnu and then sleep,

10. Vyasa:
These rules of procedure and rituals should be performed daily. This would lead to all good things in the world. He who does not observe these rules due to non belief or due to laziness will be born as a crow in the next life and also would suffer in many types of hell. For getting a pleasant life, no special Dharma other than these Varnashrama Dharmas have been mentioned in the Sastras. So for pleasing God these rules of life should be observed without fail. This is what has been told in the Sastras.

Thus ends the Ahnika Prakarana in the Samkshepa Dharma Sasthra.

C. Asoucha Prakaranam
[Details of Taint]

I. Asoucha Sabdhartham (Meaning of the tainted period)
II Asoucha Sandhyopasana Vidhi (Rules of Sandhya Vandhana during tainted period)
III. Asouche Thyaja karmaani (Rituals which should not be done during tainted period)
IV. Sadhya Asoucham (Asoucha beginning)
V. Durmruthaanaam Samskara (Ceremonies for those who die badly)
VI. Garbhasthravadhi nimithasoucham (Taint due to abortion)
VII. Shishmaranedha Vichara (Taint in case of baby's death.) 8
VIII. Khananadhi samskara (Practice of burial)
IX. Kanya marana Asoucha (Taint in case of death of unmarried girl)
X. Upaneetha Asoucham (Taint for death after sacred thread ceremony)
XI. Datha puthra Asoucham (Taint for adopted son)
XII. Tri rathra Asoucham (Three day taint)
XIII. Pakshinyaasoucham (Taint for one and half days)
XIV. Eka dina Asoucham (One day taint)
XV. Anekasoucha Sannipathe Asoucha karma (Rules of Multiple Taints)
XVI. Athikratha Asoucham (Taint after lapse of time)
XVII. Jana Marana Sambhave Dina Nirnaya (Fixing day of Death or Birth)
XVIII. Asoucha Sangraham (Summary of the different type of taints)

(Among Hindus a taint period is to observed by parents, other relatives and clan members if a death or birth takes place in a family. This taint is of different types. Since this knowledge was with the elder generations, slowly this knowledge is disappearing. This chapter deals in detail about the type and period of the taint as well as its applicability to different relations and clan members.)

I. Asoucha Sabdhartham
(Meaning of the tainted period)

1. Sankha:
During the tainted period, we are not supposed to get or give charity, not supposed to get compensation, not supposed to do Homa or learning of Vedas or perform rituals to please manes. But we can do Pinda dhana aimed at the Pretha (dead body). (This is done during first days after death)

2. Vignaneswara:
Asoucha (Taint) is a special concept in man which can be got rid of over time and by bath, in which he is permitted to do rituals towards the dead body and in which he is banned from learning of Vedas, worship and Homa.

3. Sangraha:
That surprising thing called Asoucha creates taint in man and becomes the cause to him to do Pinda and Udhaka and which vanishes over time and by bath.

II. Asoucha Sandhyopasana Vidhi
(Rules of Sandhya Vandhana during the tainted period)

Brahmins do not have Asoucha (taint) when they are performing Sandhya vandana. It will come after that. In the houses where Agnihothra (Fire sacrifice) is being done, to the man performing Agnihothra, Asoucha is not there during the time when he performs Agnihothra. The taint comes after that. Brahmachari is always exempt from Asoucha. But the man who does Agnihothra should not touch those having Asoucha or eat along with them.

1. Pulasthya:
Both in case of taint of death or birth, Sandhya vandana should not be abandoned. The Sandhya vandana mantras should be thought of within the mind and not chanted. The Mantras of Pranayama should not be even be thought of within the mind. Pranayama should be performed without Mantra.

2. Vyasa:
In the Sandhya vandana which is performed during Asoucha period, the water oblation should be done along with oral chanting of Gayathri. After that you have to do Athma Pradakshina (Perambulation of one self), do Tharpana, meditate on the Sun God and chant Gayathri 10 times.

III. Asouche Thyaja Karmaani
(Rituals which should not be done during the tainted period)

1. Manu:
Both in the case of death taint or birth taint, we should take food in the house of people with Asoucha. The man with Asoucha should not do charity, Homa and recitation of Veda during this period.
During this 10 day period, worship of Gods should not be done. He should not do rituals aimed at manes, give charity or do chanting of Mantras.

2. Kanwa:
If we do not get another Brahmin to do Agnihothra on our behalf, we can take bath and perform the Agnihothra along with wet cloths, till we complete the ritual we do not have any taint. Then only we get Asoucha.

3. Brahaspathi:
The Oupasana (Vedic maintenance of domestic fire) should not be discontinued during birth and death taint, or when we are sick or when we go to a foreign place or when we take food in the Sradha (worship of manes). It should be got done by another Brahmin.

4. Kanva:
Body cleanliness, Aachamana, bath, rules for taking food, taking bath when we touch things that should not be touched etc should be observed in the Asoucha period also. When you get Asoucha, even the things that you posses become tainted. When your Asoucha period is over, they automatically become clean so you should not posses them during Asoucha period. Even if we sprinkle water they do not become clean. Curd, milk, ghee, vegetables, flowers, mustard, medicines, fire wood, tubers, fruits meat, honey, water of the well, skin of deer, can be taken by others with permission of the owner

5. Sangraha:
In times of danger, the rules of Asoucha do not apply.. So during the Asoucha period, if we are sick or in any other danger, we can do all activities to get rid of the danger.

6. Parasara:
The wealth given during war, Yagna, marriage, Sankramana (month beginning), eclipse, during death and after birth of children would give rise to pleasures. Even if these happen during night, charity can be given or taken. During other times charity should not be given at night.

IV. Sadhya Asoucham
(Asoucha Beginning)

1. Daksha:
Asoucha can be of the duration of one day, one and half days, three days, four days, six days, ten days, twelve days, a fortnight, month, till death or for five days.

2. Yagnavalkya:
As soon as you hear about Asoucha that affects you, you should take bath along with the cloths that you are wearing at that time. The Asoucha that lasts till you take bath is called Sadhya Asoucha. Vedic Rithviks who participate in a Yagna, Deekshithas (people who do Yagna), People who do Sathra yaga, Brahmachari, People who observe a Vrutha after doing Sankalpa, People who are giving charity and people who have realized Brahman are said to have Sadhya Asoucha only. Also people who are giving Dhana, people who are marrying, People in the midst of Yaga, People involved in war, People when the country is being attacked also undergo Sadhya Asoucham only.

3. Brahaspathi:
For people who are Naishtika Brahmachari (who have not married at all), Vana Prastha, Sanyasi and for Brahmachari there is no taint because of death or birth.

4. Sangraha:
If Asoucha happens after the start of giving money to Brahmins, People who are observing Sradha, People who are giving Dhana., Homa, Thapas and Yaga, for them it is only Sadhya Asoucha. In case of taint due to death they have to take bath but in case of taint due to birth, they need not take bath.

5. Smruthyartha sara:
The Yaga begins once we choose the Rithviks, do Vrutha and Sathrayaga. The marriage ceremony begins with Nandi Sradha. The Sradha begins with cooking of food or when we choose the Brahmins. In all these cases after the beginning till it ends there is no Asoucha.

6. Bodhayana:
Once we chant Pranava and Vyahruthees and do Sankalpa for Veda Parayana, we cannot stop the chanting in the middle. So till it ends there is no Asoucha due to death or birth.

7. Smruthyantha:
If the marriage ceremony begins and if either of the parents die, then the marriage ceremony including Sesha Homa should be completed and then only we have to begin the rituals of death.
If after marriage and before Sesha Homa one of the couple dies then Sesha Homa should be completed and then only cremation has to be done.

8. Shadtrisanmathi:
When Brahmins are taking food, if Asoucha comes to the man who does the Kriya, then we should request our friends who do not have Asoucha to serve food and ask them to do Aachamana from water brought from other houses and complete the ritual.

9. Vishnu Purana:
In case of Sradha which is seen by a women in periods or women who has given birth to a baby (within the stipulated time) or Person with Asoucha or Person who has carried a corpse, then neither the manes nor the Devas take food.

10. Parasara:
In case of death because of falling from a mountain or due to fire or when death occurs in some other country, death of a child or death of a Sanyasi, there is only Sadhya Asoucha (only ritualistic bath).

11. Budha Vasishta:
During eclipse there is no Asoucha due to birth or death. It comes only after the eclipse.

12. Samgraha:
In case of death of the son in law, for the father in law and the mother in law or in case of death of sister's husband to the brother in law or in case of death of Yajaka for the Yajya or in case of death of disciple to the teacher or in case of death of a student of a class to the son of the teacher or in case of death of Yajaman (Kartha) to the rithvik, there is only Sadhya Asoucha.

13. Parasara:
In case of death due to failure of crops or death due to calamities, dangers, pestilence, flood etc, the Gnathis (paternal clan members) will have only Sadhya Asoucham. In case of death of an artist, carpenter, ironsmith, doctors, servants and maids, barbers, kings, people who have learned Vedas Sadhya Asoucham is prescribed.

14. Brahaspathi:
He who fights boldly and dies according to the Dharma of Kshatriyas (royals) has a death which is similar to the end of a Yaga. In such a case there is only Sadhya Asoucham.

15. Yagnavalkya:
In case of kings or those who die due to thunder o those who sacrifice their life to save a Brahmin or cow or those who die in war and in case of the favourite priest of the king only Sadhya Asoucha is prescribed.

V. Durmruthaanaam Samskara
(Ceremonies for those who die badly)

1. Parasara:
Sadhya Asoucha is prescribed for death of a young boy or to the one who is abroad, sinner and Sanyasi. It is also prescribed for those who commit suicide using fire, hanging and jumping in water.

2. Samgraha:
Taint (Asoucham) is not there in case of the death of Eunuch or sinner or a Sanyasi who later gave up Sanyasa or he who does not follow Dharma or a man who wastes his life or prostitute or he who does not belong to any stage of life or thief or the one who causes abortion or lady who kills her husband or those who commit suicide. To these people death ceremonies are to be performed without Mantra. Their family members do not have taint (Asoucham). One year after their death, a ritual called Narayana Bali is to be performed.

3. Vyasa:
For those, who die using a sinful means, after one year perform Narayana Bali and start the after death ceremonies. After this there is a three day taint (Asoucham). On the second day putting the bones in water, third day Udaka Dana and fourth day Sradha has to be performed.

4. Angeras:
To the one who attains cruel death, Narayana Bali should be performed after one year or after three months or six months and rituals have to be performed. The after death rituals in this case are different. After one year Narayana Bali has to be done after performing Prajapathya Kruchram, Athikruchram, three Thaptha Kruchrams and Chaandrayanam. Since there is no certainty of our life span, the rituals can be performed after 6 months but with double of what has been told above. In case of three months, three times the above should be done. In case of three fortnights, it should be four times and for immediate performance it should be five times. (Particulars of these Kruchrams (mortifications) are given in last chapter)

VI. Garbhasthravadhi Nimithasoucham
(Taint due to abortion)

1. Parasara:
In case of abortion, the mother has birth taint for number of days equal to the number of months that the foetus was in her womb. An abortion occurring within 4 months is called Sravam (Oozing) and that which occurs after 5 or 6 months is called patham (falling) and that which occurs after 7 months is called Prasavam (delivery). After 7 months the mother has to observe birth taint for ten days.

2. Dasaka:
For abortion within three months, the mother has birth taint for three days. That which occurs after 4 months but before 6 months, it is number of days equaling the number of months and in case of abortion after 7th month, a full ten days birth taint has to be observed.

3. Sangraha:
If a girl baby is born, the girl babies brother, father, brother of father, his son, grand father and grand father's brother have to observe 10 days taint.
In case of birth of a male child, all the members of the paternal clan will have ten days birth taint. In case of female child, the parents, the grand father, their father and brother as well as the brothers of the father only have to observe the ten day birth taint. Other clan members need not observe.
There are two types of birth taint - One where nobody should touch us and other where we are not eligible for rituals. Mother has full taint (no body should touch her) but in case of father he can be touched after he takes bath, but he is not eligible for doing rituals, which are not of personal nature. He can do Oupasana, Vaiswadeva etc. In case of the members of the paternal clan, the untouchability taint is never there.
In case of birth of a male child, the people of the paternal clan of the child do not have untouchability taint. But they do not have the permission to do some rituals. The father and mother have taint. Once the father takes bath after hearing the child's birth, the father does not have untouchability taint. The people of the clan, father and mother have equal untouchability taint. When they take bath after 10 days, they get rid of the taint. But mother has taint till the day she is allowed to touch the pots. Though father gets rid of the taint, he does not have permission to do ritualistic acts till the taint goes away from his wife. In the Kali Nishidha Prakarana, it is told that the taint should not be reduced or removed depending on the leaning of a Brahmin. The untouchability birth taint is for 10 days. In case of male birth, the father does not have permission to do rituals for 20 days and it is 30 days in case of female child. But these can be modified as per the clan customs.

4. Markandeya:
Six days after the birth of the child, the relations have to celebrate. This would bring happiness to the Goddess called Janmadha. The ladies should sing during this occasion. The men should be armed and keep awake during night. Similar festivities should be observed on the tenth day also. This protects the child.

VII. Shishmaranedha Vichara
(The taint in case of baby's death.)

Both in case of death taint and birth taint, people with taint should not touch each other. If they touch unknowingly they should observe Santhapana Kruchram. If they do it knowingly they should observe Prajapathya Kruchram. (Refer last chapter for particulars of Kruchram)

1. Manu:
If the baby dies within ten days of its birth, the people of the clan do not have death taint but only birth taint.

2. Vyagra:
If a baby dies within ten days, then the parents need to observe only the birth taint for ten days. Sarathapa says that even they do not have death taint.

3. Yagnavalkya:
If the child dies before breaking of teeth, the clan people have only Sadhya Asoucham. From that time till the babies Choula (first hair cut) they have taint for one day. If the baby dies from third year to seventh year they have three day death taint. If the child dies after the sacred thread ceremony, they have ten days death taint. If the child dies on the tenth day after the birth, the parents have a taint for another additional two days. If the baby dies on the sixteenth day, the parents will have three day death taint. This is not applicable to the people of the clan. For the death of the baby after ten days, the parents and the baby's brother have ten day death taint.

VIII. Khananadhi Samskara
(The practice of burial)

1. Karma Pradheepka:
An unmarried girl or young boy who dies before twenty three months after birth, should be buried. After 23 months they should be cremated,

2. Madhaveeya:
If a child who has not completed 2 years and is cremated then the members of the clan will have three days taint.

3. Angeeras:
For the child to which teeth have not formed and dies before Choula (first crop), then the members of the clan will have three day taint.

4. Shadaseethi:
If the child dies during first or second year but after Choula, then the members of the clan will have three day taint. In case of child above three years of age, whether Choula is done or not, the members of the clan should do Udhaka Dana for three days without Mantra. They should also have to do Pinda Dana. After eight years of age, pinda Dana should be done for ten days. The Pretha Pinda should be given out without Durba Mantra.
Cremation, Udaka Dana and Pinda Dana should be done along with Asthi Sanchayana after five years of age without Mantra. After six years of age till the sacred thread ceremony, the Samskara should be done following garcha tradition, and then Thiolodhaka, Pinda Dhana, Nava Sradha and Shodasa sradha without Mantras. After the sacred thread ceremony, the cremation should be done using the Pithru Medha tradition with chanting of Mantras and the rituals carried out.
Within 8 years, the pashana Sthapana (consecration of stone) should be done followed by Udhaka Pinda dhana but there is no sapindeekarana.
In case of the married boy, above seven years of age and unmarried boy above 12 years of age, Sapindeekarana should certainly be done.
In case of unmarried girl, male child, and lads before marriage Pindodhaka Kriyas should be done for three days. The death taint would be there for ten days. The Pindodhaka Dhana should start from eighth day and completed within ten days and Narayana Bali should be given on 12th day.
In case of male child: Unmarried girl, eunuch and the sinner Narayana Bali should certainly be done. This should be done in case of Sanyasis also. Udhaka Dana should be done after three years of age and Narayana Bali should be done after four years of age.

IX. Kanya Marana Asoucha
(Taint in case of death of unmarried girl)

1. Aapasthamba:
For the death of an unmarried girl before Choula (first hair cut), for the clan members Sadhya Asoucha is prescribed. After choula one day taint and after marriage three days taint should be observed.

2. Samgraha:
If an unmarried girl dies before Choula, the clan members would have Sadhya Asoucham. If they die after Choula but before engagement, one day taint. After engagement till marriage if they die the clan members should observe three day taint. But if they die before marriage but after they have their first periods, then they have to observe 10 days taint. If a girl dies after engagement but before marriage, her clan members as well as the clan members of her 'would be husband' should observe three days taint. Understand that for a boy or an unmarried girl, their parents and brother will have ten days taint.

3. Vyasa:
If a girl after marriage gives birth or dies in her father's house her relations will have one day taint. The father, mother and brothers will have three days taint.

4. Deepika:
If a married woman dies or gives birth in her father's house, the parents would have three days taint. Their children will have one day taint. It is not necessary to enquire where she died.

X. Upaneetha Asoucham
(Taint for death after sacred thread ceremony)

1. Deepika:
If a boy of age more than 8 dies before or after sacred thread ceremony, all the clan members will have ten day taint.

2. Manu:
When a death occurs after age 8, the clan members will have ten day taint.
In case of death taint Sapindas (clan members up to seven generation) will have ten day taint. But Samnodhakas (Clan members beyond 7 generations) will have only three day taint. Their brother's however will get rid of the taint by a mere bath.

3. Parasara:
For a Brahmin who observes Agnihothram, Chants Vedas and observes all aacharas (ritual rules of life) the taint is only for one day. If he does not observe Agnihothra but reads Vedas and observes Achara, he has three day taint, For a Brahmin who does not follow any of these there is a ten day taint.
He who has done errors in Karmas and birth, He who has left performing Sandhya vandana. Oupasana and Aacharas, and who is only for name sake Brahmin, has ten days taint, In Kali age Asoucha (taint) should fully be observed.

4. Haaritha:
For death of the paternal clan members definitely Brahmins should observe ten days taint period. You should not follow rules contrary to this mentioned elsewhere.
A Brahmachari (unmarried person) should not do death ceremonies till Sapindeekaranam to any one except his parents. If he does he should do redemption and get sacred thread ceremony performed again.

XI. Datha Puthra Asoucham
(Taint for adopted son)

1. Manu:
An adopted son does not attain the clan or get wealth of his biological father and so he need not perform death ceremonies to him.

2. Mareechira:
The adopted son who attains a different clan, does not have anything to do with clan relation ship, taint and wealth of his biological father. He gets full rights in the adopted clan.
He should perform all these acts in the clan of the adopted father.

3. Smrithi:
When the adopted son, biological son and artificial son perform the death ceremonies of their parents, if new moon comes in between, the pinda (rice ball) and udaka (water) Dana ceremonies would continue. If others perform they have to discontinue it on the new moon day. When the biological son does death ceremonies for his parents, the adopted son who has gone to a different clan also has three days taint. Similarly when the adopted son dies (or birth happens in his family) his biological brother would have three days taint. If the biological father does not have son or grand sons, the adopted son who has gone to a different family has to do all death ceremonies from cremation and observe parvana Sradha (annual death anniversary with Homam) every year. The eldest son should never be adopted or given in adoption. The death or birth of children for an adopted son would entail only a purificatory bath for his original clan members.

XII. Tri Rathra Asoucham
(Three day taint)

1. Brahaspathi:
Three day taint is there in case of the death of Father in law, teacher and he who performs sacred thread ceremony for you. Please note that if sacred thread ceremony is done by some one outside our clan, he is also included. Three days taint in case of the death of Mother's sister, uncle, mother in law, father in law and he who teaches Vedas and the institutor of a sacrifice for you...

2. Aangeeras:
Three days taint in case of death of father in law, maternal uncle, mother in law, Uncle's wife, mother's father and mother's mother. Three day taint in case of the death of the prathiyogis (relatives) maternal grand father, maternal grand mother, maternal uncle, his wife, mother's sister. Daughter, daughter's son, father's sister, our sister, our sister's son, mother in law, father in law. In case of death and birth Samanodhaka (Relative connected with water oblation beyond seven generations) as well as death of children between three years till they wear the sacred thread in case of our clan, there is only a three day taint. If our daughter gives birth, her father, mother and brother there is three day taint. The man who observes three day taint should shave himself, if the person who died is elder to him. If the wife dies before her parents and there is a child then in case of the death of father and mother in law, there is a shave and a three day taint for the husband. If there are no children, then there is only one day taint. Women have three day taint in case of the death of their brother, his son, mother of the co wife, sister's son (if he has undergone sacred thread ceremony). It has already been told that wife shares all the taint of her husband and not vice versa.