Samkshepa Dharma Shastra

XXVIII. Ashtaka Sradha Niroopanam
(Time for Ashtaka Sradha)

1. Sounaka
The Ashtami thithi which occurs in the months of spring and autumn are Ashtaka Punya kala. i. e Ashtamis occurring in the months of Margaseersha, Pousha, Magha and Phalguna. In each of these sradha has to be performed in Poorvethyu (previous day to ashtaka), Ashtaka and Anvashka (next day to ashtaka). i. e on Sapthami, Ashtami and Navami days.
In the Pournami of Magha month, Ashtami and Kettai concurrently occur in the Krishna Paksha, This is called Yekashtaka. Apasthamba is of the opinion that it is an important ashtaka.
In the Ashtami of Bhadrapada and Magha masa, people who cannot afford to do Sradha should at least do a Gingelly Tharpana.

XXIX. Mahalaya Sradha Niroopanam
(Particulars of Sradha during Mahalaya Paksha)

1. Markandeya
Sradha has to be performed for 15 days when Sun enters Kanya Rasi.

2. Jabali
When Sun is in Kanya rasi during the Krishna Paksha, sradha has to be performed daily. The Fifth day from Ashada Pournami is very appropriate for performing Sradha. By performing sradha on that day we can get longer life, health, sons and wealth. When Surya enters Kanya rasi, it is considered as auspicious. It is sufficient if it is in the beginning, middle or end of the rasi. Some saints tell that sradha has to be performed for 16 days starting from one Prathama to another Prathama. Both views are acceptable. But follow one Shastra. In Madhaveeya is mentioned that it could be done either for 15 days or 16 days. But Paksha consists of only 15 days. This is accepted by everybody. When Surya enters Kanya Rasi, the manes reach their sons. At that time Yama's place is completely empty. The manes come with the belief that their sons will feed them by doing Sradha and they will not be hungry. So in the Pithru paksha sradha should be at least performed for one day. If not done they will be waiting till the beginning of the next month. If we do not do sradha, they would curse us and go back. Bharani, Ashtami, vyatheepada and Dwadasi are considered more important among the 15 days. The Sradha performed during this period is called "Sakruth Mahalaya Sradha".
In Mahalaya Sradha the following manes are addressed. Viswedevas, father, mother, mother in law, The manes of the mother's family, Pithruvyaya, aunt, uncle, mother's sisters, Woman of the family, sister, daughter,wife, father in law, mother in law, Sister's husband, daughter in law m brother in law, Guru, Aacharya, Swami and friends. These are called Karunika Pithrus. The specialty of Mahalaya Sradha is that each of them is worshipped separately.
Mahalaya Sradha should not be performed before the Sradha of mother and father. Mahalaya should not be performed in that month. Mahalaya should be performed only after performing the Sradha of mother and father. Some people because they should not do it in the Parvana way, do it in the Hiranya form, do Tharpana and feed the Brahmins, Understand that this is also proper.

XXX. Vrudhi Sradha Niroopanam
(Sradha performed for progress - particulars)

1. Vishnu Purana
The father has to do Jatha Karma and Nama karana for his sons. At that time he can perform nandi Sradha. When performing Namakarana, Annaprasana, Choula, Samavarthana, Somayaga, Upanayana, snana karma, Kanya Dhana and Vivaha, Nandi sradham should be performed. These are done by the father for the sake of the son. Nandi sradha should be performed in the Poorvahnna. This is the first 10 Nazhigai (i. e 4 hours) of the day from sun rise. In Nandi sradha Curd, Ilandai pazham and Akshatha should be mixed with the pinda and Pinda pradana done. Gingelly should not be used. The Swadha word should not be used. And it should not be performed with sacred thread on right shoulder (Prachina vidhi). The Durba should not be spread facing south. It could also be done in the Hiranya form, if one cannot afford. When you do several rituals together Nandi Sradha need to be done only once.

XXXI. Sradhe Desa Kaladhi Niroopanam
(Differences in Sradha according to time and place)

1. Purana
That which is given with devotion to a good Brahmin, aimed at manes (Pithrus) is called Sradha.. Sradha performed aimed at only one mane is called Yekodishta and the one performed aimed at three ancestors is called Parvana. These are further divided in to Nithyam, Naimithikam and Kamyam. One in which a Brahmin is given meals daily for the sake of Pithrus is called Mruthaha sradham. Darsa Sradha and Mahalaya Sradha are called Nithyam, Pretha Sradham, Sapindeekaranam, Sankramana Sradham, Grahana Sradham are classified as Naimithikam and Manvanthi sradham, yugadhi sradham, mahodhaya sradham and Vyatheepada sradham are called as Kamya. The place and time performed suitability of the Brahmin, money, the performer and Pithrus are the reasons for proper completion of a Sradha.

2. Devala
Pithrus become happy in Sradha performed in natural surroundings, mountains, sacred waters, sacred places and in places which are clean and has solitude. It is better performed in the mud floor cleaned by cow dung in one's own house.

3. Vyasa
Sradha, Japa, Homa, Thapas performed in Pushkara, mahodhadhi, prayaga, Kasi and Gurujangalam gives one non-decaying strength.

4. Pithru Gadha
The Pithrus will always wish for some man to be born in their family who will do sradham for them in Gaya Seersham and Akshaya vatam.

5. Paadume
Manu says that we should never test a Brahmin in sacred waters. Any one coming with a request for food should be fed.

6. Smruthi
Amavasya, vyatheepada, Sankramana, Vaidruthi, Ashtakas, Manwadhis, Yugadhis, Mahalaya Paksha, Eclipse of sun as well as moon, Gajachaya, Money and learned Brahmins determine the apt time to perform Sradha. In rituals of God, the Brahmins can be used without testing them but in case of Pithru Karmas (rituals of manes) they have to be tested. We should find out whether they have clean lineage, whether they have learned Vedas and whether they observe aacharas.

7. Manu
Among the son who has learned Vedas but his father who has not learned Vedas, and one who has not learned Vedas but his father has learned Vedas, who should be called for Sradha? The man who has not learned Vedas fully but whose father is a learned Vedic pundit should be invited. The money given to one who has learned Vedas and who is fit to be worshiped, would grant us great strength. So in Pithru Karmas we should call great Brahmins. We can call that Brahmin who is interested in chanting of Gayathri and who leads his life according to religious rules. That Brahmin who though is an expert in Vedas but who eats in all places, who leads a life selling everything and who does not take bath or do Sandhya Vandhana should not be chosen for the Pithru Karmas.
He who does Agnihothra, He who knows Nyaya Sasthra, he who knows the six branches of Vedas, He who knows Manthras, He who protects Dharma, He who worships Guru, God and fire, He who is wise, He who worships Lord Shiva and he who has devotion to Vishnu are termed as Pankthi Pavanas (holy people). They can be called for Pithru karmas. If a Sanyasi lives in a village we should inform that we are performing Sradha to him. Those who tell Vedas during the banned times of Amavasya and Prathama, Those who do not have good Aacharas and are unclean and those who eke out a living from the fourth caste are people who are finding fault with Brahmins.
In the month or Paksha in which Sradha comes, one should not crop and shave and also avoid having sexual relation with women. The place where Sradha is to be performed should be cleaned using cow dung and water. Then we have to sprinkle Gingelly (til) on that space. Wheat, Paddy, Barley, Gingelly, garden pea, mustard, Paryangu (?), Govidhara (?) and Avarai (lab lab beans) are suitable for the Sradha. Without black gram Sradha cannot be performed. Curd, milk, cooked rice, ghee and Jaggery should be used in Sradha. These satisfy the Pithrus for one month. The Pithrus who are satisfied by honey, give us all that we want. So honey should definitely used in Sradha. Jack fruit, banana fruit, Pomegranate, Mango fruit, Grapes, Bitter gourd, cucumber, Avarai, snake gourd, Plantain, Curry leaf, Elephant foot yam (karunai Kizhangu), ginger and Lime should definitely be used in Sradha. Presenting cloth according to our financial capability is considered good.

Some Important Points In Performing Sradha:
1. After 12 Nazhigais (about 11 am), you have to give oil and Choorna (powder soap/shampoo) to the Brahmins and they should be requested to take bath. Then the man who performs the Sradha should take bath. In Dwadasi powder of gooseberry should be given.
2. When performing Avahana, Argya, Sankalpa, Pinda Dhana, Thilodhaka, Akshayya, asana, Padhyam and Annadhana, we have to tell our name and that of the Gothra.
3. When you are doing Avahana of Devas, rice has to be sprinkled on right foot, left foot, right knee, left knee and head of the Brahmin. When we do Avahana of Pithrus sprinkle Gingelly on head, left shoulder, right shoulder, left knee, left foot and right foot.
4. The Brahmins participating should not gossip or talk unnecessarily.
5. For devas we can hold the thumb and in case of Pithrus they should be invited (amanthranam) along with the thumb.
6. They should neither praise nor find fault with the food.
There are many such rules. Consult elders in your family about them. Veda says that Pithrus are Vasus, Pithamaha (grand father) are rudras and prapithamaha (great grand father) are Adhithyas. Except the Mruthaha Sradha others can be performed as Ama Roopa or Hiranya Roopa. When you cannot afford to do Sradha, feed sufficient grass to cows. They can be fed with rice balls (pindas). We can do Thila Tharpana addressing the Pithrus. When you do Tharpana, you should take bath and wear dried cloths. He who is not able to do Sradha, if he performs the representative of the rituals with devotion, he gets the same effect as having performed Sradha.

XXXII. Sradha Prasamsa
(Praising Sradha)

1. Sumanthu
There is no other rituals which give comfort to the man greater than Sradha. So he who seeks comforts should perform Sradha.

2. Yama
He, who worships Pithrus, devas and fire are worshipping Lord Vishnu who is in all beings. By performing the Worship of Pithrus they get long life, sons, fame, heaven, name, health, strength, luck, cows, money and grains. So Grahasthas (married people) should perform Sradha with devotion.

Thus ends the chapter on proper worship of manes in Samkshepa Dharma Sashtra.

E. Thithi Nirnaya Prakaranam
[Fixing of Suitable Thithi]

I. Kala niroopanam (Fixing of time)
II. Nimishadhi Lakshanam (Form of Nimisha and other things)
III. Thithi swaroopa (Nature of thithi)
IV. Khanda thithi swaroopa (Nature of Khanda Thithis)
V. Thithinam veda vichara (Examination of veda regarding this)
VI. Prathama thithi nirnaya (Description of Prathama thithi)
VII. Yekabhaktha nirnaya (One time food determination)
VIII. Naktha Vrutha nirnaya (Determination of of the night only food practice)
IX. Dwitheeya thithi nirnaya (Estimate of the Dwitheeya thithi)
X. Thrutheeya nirnaya (Determination of Thrutheeya thithi)
XI. Chathurthi Nirnaya (Determination of Chathurthi thithi)
XII. Panchami nirnaya (Determination of Panchami Thithi)
XIII. Sashti nirnaya (Determination of Sashti thithi)
XIV. Sapthami nirnaya (Determination of Sapthami)
XV. Ashtami nirnaya (Determination of Ashtami)
XVI. Sri Krishna Janmashtami nirnaya (Determination of Lord Krishna's birthday)
XVII. Sri Rama Navami nirnaya (Determination of Rama Navami)
XVIII. Dasavathara kala nirnaya (Determination of the time of birth of Ten Incarnations)
XIX. Dasami nirnaya (Determination of Dasami)
XX. Ekadasi nirnaya (Determination of Ekadasi)
XXI. Dwadasi nirnaya (Determination of Dwadasi)
XXII. Thryodasi nirnaya (Determination of Thryodasi)
XXIII. Chaturdasi nirnaya (Determination of Chaturdasi)
XXIV. Shiva Rathri nirnaya (Determination of Shiva Rathri)
XXV. Panchadasi nirnaya (Determination of Panchadasi)

(Thithi, the nature of moon's crescent is important in fixing the time for rituals as well as festivities. But thithis do rarely start with sun rise and end with next day's sun rise. So almost every day is the mixture of thithis. (Khanda thithi). This chapter tells us the rules for fixing the rules for the time of different rituals based on Khanda thithis.)

I. Kala Niroopanam
(fixing of time)

Now the form and shape of Kala is being told

1. Gargya
Being a part of the main rituals, Thithi (moon's crescent), Vara (Day) and Nakshatra (Star) become the cause for doing sins and good deeds. Independently they do not have any effect.

II. Nimishadhi Lakshanam
(Form of Nimisha and other things)

The time taken for one blink is a Nimisham. Two nimishas make one Triti. Two Tritis make one lava. Two lavas are one Kshana. Ten Kshanas are one Kashta. Thirty Kashtas make one kala. Thirty kalas make one Muhurtha. Thirty Muhurthas are a day and a night (24 hours).

III. Thithi Swaroopa
(Nature of thithi)

The merging of Sun and Moon is called Amavasya. When they are furthest apart it is called Poornima. Chandra has 15 crescents. Entry of each crescent of the moon in to the sun is the thithis of Krishna Paksha. The coming out of these crescents after they fully enter the sun are the Thithis of Shukla paksha,

IV. Khanda Thithi Swaroopa
(Nature of Khanda Thithis)

Those Thithis which are spread from one sun rise to next day sun rise are called Shudha (clean) thithis. They get an adjective of "Shudha". Others are called Khanda thithis.

1. Gargya
According to Dharma and Adharma, Thithis are classified in to three. If this are equal it is called Kharava, if it increases Dharpa and if it decreases it is called Himsra.

2. Vrudha Gargya
Depending on the time, the rituals told in the shastras have to be observed or not observed when Shastras tell that it should not be observed. Those thithis which are good for rituals are great. It is sufficient if we know those times where performances are banned. That is there is no examination of the greatness of such thithis. In Shudha and Complete Thithis actions can be performed but only in Khanda Thithis, this needs examination. So we shall examine about Khanda thithis.

V. Thithinam Veda Vichara
(Examination of veda regarding thithis)

Veda is the relation of one thithi with the next thithi. There are of two types like Amavasya and Prathama and Prathama and Dwitheeya.

1. Kalanirnaya
If a thithi does not have relation with the next thithi it is called Shudha Thithi. If it has relation, it is called vidha thithi. Even this is of two types. If the relation is with in the first three muhurthas (6 nazhikas-144 minutes), it is one type of vidha thithi. And another type has relation with three muhurthas prior to sun set in the next day. That is that Prathama which has relation with Amavasya during sun rise is called Prathama vidha and one which has relation with Dwitheeya on the next day sun set is also called vidha. Any relation with less than 6 muhurthas is not considered as Vidha. These are respectively called Poorva Vidha thithi and Uthara Vidha thithi.

VI. Prathama Thithi Nirnaya
(Description of Prathama thithi)

In Shukla Paksha that Prathama which has Vidha with amavasya and in Krishna Paksha that Prathama which has Vidha with Dwitheeya are suitable for fasting. Shukla Prathama with Poorva vidha is better. But in the Aparahna, Prathama relation should be there. If this is not available, Prathama relation should be available in Sayahna. This type of Shukla Prathama is suitable for fasting.
The day time is divided in to five parts each with 6 Nazhigai. These are respectively called Pratha, Sangava, Madyahna, Aparahna and Sayahna. This division is considered important in shastras.
The day can be divided in to two parts, Poorvahnna and Aparahna or three parts Poorvahnna, Madyahna and Aparahna or four parts Poorvahnna, Madyahna, Aparahna and Sayahna or five parts Pratha, Poorvahnna, Madyahna, Aparahna and Sayahna. The division in to five is considered as more appropriate.

1. Devala
That thithi in which sun set takes place is very suitable for Dhana (charity), Parayana (reading scriptures) and Upavasa (fasting). That thithi should not be less than three muhurthas. It could spread more than three muhurthas. That type of Thithi only is suitable for rituals.

2. Sairepi
If a thithi is spread during sun set it should be spread for at least three muhurthas. Elders say that only such complete thithis are suitable for holy activities.

3. Sumanthu
If we observe fast according to thithi or Nakshatra, at the end of the thithi and Nakshatra we should do Parana (eat/drink something i. e beak our fast) If we do not that that Vrutha is not complete. This is applicable to those thithis which have Veda. For Shudha thithis this would not happen. For Sivarathri Vrutha or Sravana Vrutha the Parana is at the end of the thithi and not Nakshatra (Sravana in this case). Where Parana is prescribed at the end of Thithi and Nakshatra and Thithi are Nakshatra are beyond three Yamas at night, the Parana can be performed in the morning after we get up.
If we are not able to observe in the Poorva Veda thithi, fast can be performed in Uthara Veda thithi also.
Depending on the kala (duration) prescribed for the Vrutha, it has to be observed depending on what thithi pervades during that time.

VII. Yekabhaktha Nirnaya
(One time food determination)

1. Skanda
If we are not able to observe complete fast, yekabhakth (taking meals once) can be observed. This consists of taking food only once. This can be observed after half of the day time. 15 to 18 Nazhigai (Nazhigai-24 minutes) after that is the most important time. After that the time before sun set is the Gowna period.

2. Bodhayana
In Yekabhaktha as well as in worship of gods and fasts, the thithi which spreads in the Madyahna is mentioned. This is a general rule

In the thithi spread over Madyahna there are six types:
1. Having relation with Madyahna only in the previous day 2. Having relation with Madyahna only in the second day 3. Having relation with Madyahna during both days 4. Having no relation with Madyahna on both days 5. Having little relation with Madyahna on both the days. 6. Having relation on both days but strong on one day and weak on the other day.
Understand that in this in case of the first two there is relation with Madyahna. In the case of third since Poorva Vidha is special and the spread in the Gowna kala is more and the thithi in the previous day only is recognized. In the fourth case also the relation in the previous day is important and is considered more suitable for rituals. In the fifth case, though there is equal relationship with Madyahna, Poorva vidha (previous day) is considered as better. In the sixth case the day when spread in to Madyahna is more is considered. Yekabhaktha has to be observed taking these in to consideration. This is also the rule for worship as well as fast.

VIII. Naktha Vrutha Nirnaya
(Determination of of the night only food practice)

1. Varaha Purana
In the Marga seersha month in the Shukla Paksha Prathama, we have to observe Naktha Vrutha (fast in the day time and take food at night) and Lord Vishnu worshipped

2. Kala Darsa
In Naktha Vrutha, the thithi should be there for three muhurthas (6 nazhigas of 24 minutes) before sun set and also three muhurthas of thithi after sun set. The thithi before sun set which goes in to Sayamkala is the Gowna period. The thithi which is spread after sun set is considered more important. The thithi which spreads over Pradosha is especially good for Naktha Vrutha.
Sanyasis and widows should not take food at night. So the thithi which is spread over Gowna period is suitable for them. In case of Naktha Vrutha, family people can take food at night. So for them the thithi, which is spread over Pradosha is more suitable for them. (Naktha-night, Pradosha- the beginning of night)

3. Vyasa
Pradosha is the period of three muhurthas after sun set. Naktha Vrutha should be observed then. In this case also the spread of the thithi is in 6 ways and should be taken in to consideration.

4. Skanda
If Thithi does not spread in to Pradosha, Naktha Vrutha can be observed in Sayamkala. That is the period when your shadow is twice your size and is suitable for Naktha. In Naktha Vrutha, if Sunday is involved then even a Grahastha should not take food. He should observe it in day time.
On Sunday, Amavasya and Pournami, we should not take food at night. In case of Chaturdasi and Ashtami, we should not take food during day time.
When the period of ban for taking food is over, then we can take food. In the Parva, food should not be taken at night. In case of eclipse, after eclipse is over, only you can take food. In the night if there is an eclipse, we should not take food at night.

5. Vrudha Yagnavalkya
For Snana (holy bath) and Dhana (ritual charity) the Uthara vidha period should be chosen.

IX. Dwitheeya Thithi Nirnaya
(Estimate of the Dwitheeya thithi)

Ekadasi, Ashtami, Sashti, Dwitheeya, Chaturdasi, Thryodasi and Amavasya are Para vidha and are suitable for fasting.

X. Thrutheeya Nirnaya
(Determination of Thrutheeya thithi)

Ramba Vrutha should be observed on Thrutheeya. That is to be observed in the Poorva vidha period. Except for this Vrutha, in case of all other Vruthas (in case of Dwitheeya) should be observed in Para Vidha time.

XI. Chathurthi Nirnaya
(Determination of Chathurthi thithi)

The Ganapathi Vrutha should be observed when Chathurthi is mixed with Thrutheeya. But Chathurthi should be in the after noon. If it is not there but if there is Chathurthi in the Madyahna of the next day, leave out Chathurthi with Thrutheeya and observe it on the next day. For other festivals other than Chathurthi, Chathurthi mixed with Panchami is considered as better.

XII. Panchami Nirnaya
(Determination of Panchami Thithi)

Panchami is one with Poorva vidha. It is considered as propitious for rituals concerning devas and manes. What is indicated is the Panchami mixed with Chathurthi.

XIII. Sashti Nirnaya
(Determination of Sashti thithi)

This thithi is Para vidha, It is good fore fasting. But in case of Skanda sashti, Poorva Vidha is considered as superior.

Vasistha says that in case of Krishnashtami, Skanda Sashti, Shiva Rathri and Chathurthi, Poorva Vidha is appropriate for observation.

XIV. Sapthami Nirnaya
(Determination of Sapthami)

Kala Nirnaya
In all Vruthas where Sapthami is involved it is Poorva vidha. If this is not properly available, one can use the Sapthami of Para vidha.

XV. Ashtami Nirnaya
(Determination of Ashtami)

Shukla Paksha Ashtami and Shukla Chaturdasi are more suitable as Para Vidha. But the Ashtami in the Krishna paksha is observed in Poorva vidha.

XVI. Sri Krishna Janmashtami Nirnaya
(Determination of Lord Krishna's birthday)

Krishna Janmashtami is very much different from Sri Jayanthi Vrutha. For Janmashtami thithi is more important and for Sri Jayanthi Rohini star is more important.
In the Sravana Krishna Paksha Ashtami, Janmashtami has to be observed. If this is not observed, the person will be born as Rakshasa. If in the Sravana month Krishnashtami, Rohini star also comes, then it is called Sri Jayanthi.. It is superior.

1. Vasishta Samhitha
If Rohini and Ashtami occur together in Sravana or Bhadrapada month, it is called as Jayanthi. If it occurs in Sravana month it is considered as special. That which occurs in Bhadrapada month is classified as Gowna.

2. Jyothisharnava
Here Sravana or Bhadra pada denotes Avani (Chinga) month InPurattasi (kanya month) or Sravana in Aadi (karkidaka) should not be considered. This is concerning Krishnashtami Jayanthi festival.
The Jayanthi in Ashtami can come in Sravana or Bhadrapada. That is it should come in the month of Avani (Chingam). If this is not available Ashtami in Sravana month can be used for Janmashtami Vrutha. This rule is for Smarthas. Srivaishnavas determine it predominantly based on the Rohini star.

3. Varaha
Here the time of the birth of Krishna is being told. When sun was in Simha rasi (that is in Avani (chingam)), when the sky is completely covered by clouds in the Bhadrapada Ashtami, in the midnight, when moon was about to rise, in the last pada of Rohini, in Wednesday, in Vrushabha Lagna, in the harshana yoga and in Gownava karana, I was born as the son of Vasudeva and Devaki - So told Krishna to Brahma.

4. Padma
It is opined that if Ashtami Rohini comes in the month of Sravana on a Wednesday or.
Monday, it is suitable for observing Vrutha of Janmashtami. The difference of month depends on the Kalpa difference. But Rohini should be there in the midnight. The Ashtami Rohini in the midnight has to be considered as the holy time. That is the time between the fifteenth and sixteenth Nazhigai at night. If Rohini does not occur there at all, then the presence of Ashtami should be taken in to consideration. For Janmashtami darkness is considered as the holy time. The Ashtami at midnight is a holy time. In this place Poorva Vidha is not considered. If any Ashtami begins after midnight and ends before next midnight, then that Ashtami has relation with both the nights. So the Ashtami has to be celebrated next day only. This is because when we chant Sankalpa Mantra Ashtami should be there. This Janmashtami has to be celebrated by every one. This is considered as Nithyam like Sandhya vandana. We have to observe fast during Janmashtami. If Ashtami is remaining in the next day Parana (breaking of fast) should not be done on that day till Ashtami thithi is over.

XVII. Sri Rama Navami Nirnaya
(Determination of Rama Navami)

1. Agasthya
If in the Chitra month Shukla paksha Navami is with Punarvasu star that is a very holy time. If Punarvasu is not there during that time, Rama Navami should be observed in the Shudha Navami during Madyahna. Here also fast should be observed.
The holy time of Sri Rama Navami is superior to even one crores of solar eclipses. So any ritual done aimed at Rama, if done with devotion, would give great strength. Worship of Rama, reading the story of Rama's birth, fast, waking up at night, and Tharpana aimed at the manes could be done. All good things including getting of salvation will then happen. This also is a nithya ritual and should definitely be observed. If not observed it will lead to sin.

XVIII. Dasavathara Kala Nirnaya
(Determination of the time of birth of the ten incarnations)

1. Mathsya incarnation Chaithra Krishna Thrayodasi
2. Koorma incarnation- Jyeshta Krishna Dwadasi
3. Varaha incarnation Chaithra Krishna Panchami
4. Narasimha incarnation Vaishaka Shudha Chathurthi with Swathi star at dusk
5. Vamana incarnation Bhadrapada Shukla Dwadasi in Sravana star
6. Parasurama incarnation Marga seersha Krishna Dwitheeya
7. Rama incarnation Chaithra Shudha Navami in Punarvasu star
8. Balarama incarnation Vaishaka shudha Thrutheeya
9. Krishna incarnation Sravana Krishnashtami in Rohini star
10. Kalki incarnation Bhadrapada Shukla Dwitheeya
Knowing the dates of these ten incarnations and performing as much holy deeds as possible on such days would give great strength. That is slight good deeds would lead to results one crore times.

XIX. Dasami Nirnaya
(Determination of Dasami)

1. Shankha
Dasami Thithi spreading in sun rise time in the Shukla Paksha is very holy. Dasami at Sun set in Krishna Paksha is holy. Look for these before following rituals.

XX. Ekadasi Nirnaya
(Determination of Ekadasi)

1. Sanath kumara Samhitha
Fast should be observed in Ekadasi of Shukla as well as in Krishna Paksha.

2. Garuda Purana
Fast should definitely be observed in Ekadasi of Krishna and Shukla Paksha. This is also classified as Nithyam (essential). That is when we are alive, we should not disregard Ekadasi.

3. Vishnu Rahasya
If we aim at going to the world of Vishnu and want to lead a pleasant life with plenty of wealth, observe fast during both Ekadasi.

4. Sanath Kumara
Ekadasi fast should never be forsaken. There are redemptive procedures for one drinking alcoholic drinks but there is no redemption for not observing Ekadasi and so Ekadasi should definitely be observed. If we leave it we will get sin. There is no solution for it.
From these we understand that it is Kamyam (desirable) that is it can be observed for our personal welfare. If we have all we want and because of that not observe Ekadasi, we will get sin. So it is Nithyam. So Ekadasi is classified as Nithya Kamyam.
We would now tell how Smarthas should determine the Ekadasi fast day.
It is said that an Ekadasi day with Dasami on the same day is not suitable for fast,. In this aspect Vaishnavas and Smarthas differ. Vaishnavas are said to be those who have Deeksha in their Pancha Rathra Agama.

5. Brahmaikavartha
We are telling the meaning as given by Vaidyanatha Deekshithiyam. The four Nazhigai (24 minutes each) before sun rise is called Arunodaya time. Dasami in the beginning of Arunodaya time is called Veda,if it is for half a Nazhigai (12 minutes). If the relation is one Nazhigai (24 minutes) then it is called Adhiveda. If the relation extends up to the sun rise it is called Maha Veda. Even if there is a few seconds of Dasami left during sun rise it is sufficient. This is called Udaya veda.
If related with Dasami, Ekadasi is there during sun rise Sri Vaishnavas do not fast or worship during that day as they consider it unsuitable. So if during sunrise if there is Dasami, understand that it is not suitable for Smarthas.

6. Narada
If during sunrise, Ekadasi is seen with relation to Dasami, Smarthas should not observe Ekadasi on that day. If observed the good effect earned in hundreds of birth would be lost.

7. Vishnu Rahasya
During breaking of fast (Parana) Dwadasi should be there at least for a few seconds. If it is no there, then we can observe Ekadasi with Dasami Veda. This is applicable to smarthas.
If Ekadasi is there fully Dwadasi increases and is available in the next day also it is called Vanjuli Ekadasi. In such cases you have to leave Ekadasi on that day, observe fast on Dwadasi and break the fast next day. Widows and Sanyasis should not observe such Ekadasi. For them even if Dwadasi is not there for breaking the fast, it does not matter.
A householder if he observes complete fast on Shukla Paksha Ekadasi, it is desirable. But in case of Krishna Paksha Ekadasi, he need not observe complete fast but take some Tiffin/fruits. No fast should be observed on Sundays, Sankramana (first of a month), Krishna Ekadasi, Vyatheepada and Sradha days. You can take palahara once during such days.
The Ashada Shukla Ekadasi is called Sayahna Ekadasi and Kruthika Shukla Ekadasi is called prabodhini Ekadasi. The householder should necessarily observe fast in the Krishna Paksha Ekadasi coming in between them. It indicates that complete fast need not be observed in other Krishna Paksha Ekadasi.

XXI. Dwadasi Nirnaya
(Determination of Dwadasi)

1. Narada
If either Krishna Dwadasi or Shukla Dwadasi is related to Sravana Nakshatra, then you have to observe fast on that Dwadasi day also and break the fast only on Thryodasi day If your health does not permit fasting for two days, observe partial fast on Ekadasi day and complete fast on the Sravana Dwadasi day.
The last 4 muhurthas of Ekadasi and the first 4 muhurthas of Dwadasi (total 16 Nazhigai) is called Harivasaram. So breaking of fast should not be done in the beginning of Dwadasi.

2. Garuda
In case only very less Dwadasi is left, because it is very important to take meals before the end of Dwadasi, Sandhya vandana, Madhyahnikam, Brahma Yagna, Oupasana, Worship and Vaiswa devam can be begun at dawn and completed early.

3. Devala
If it is very difficult to break the fast (Parana) due to less of Dwadasi, think of God and take a sip of water and break the fast. Meals can be taken later. But for no reason we should ignore breaking of fast in Dwadasi.

XXII. Thryodasi Nirnaya
(Determination of Thryodasi)

For the Vruthas to be observed in Shukla Thryodasi, Poorva vidha is supposed to be better. But in case of Krishna Thryodasi, Para vidha is supposed to be better.

XXIII. Chaturdasi Nirnaya
(Determination of Chaturdasi)

Lord Narasimha was born on a Chaturdasi at dusk. So the Vaisaka Shukla Chaturdasi which extends to night is superior. In the Shukla Chaturdasi of Sravana month Anantha Vrutha is being observed. That Chaturdasi should have connection with sun rise. So The Anantha Chaturdasi which is related to Pournami (full moon) is superior.

XXIV. Shiva Rathri Nirnaya
(Determination of Shiva Rathri)

1. Skanda
The night of the Krishna paksha Chaturdasi of the Magha month is called Shiva rathri. This is liked by Lord Shiva. That is why it is called Shiva Rathri.
On that night Lord Shiva himself is fully present in all the Shiva lingas. In permanently fixed Lingas as well as in those which are portable, even without Avahana, Lord Shiva is present on that day. So the night of Magha Krishna Paksha Shiva Rathri is called Shiva Priya Rathri (night dear to Shiva).

2. Kamika
Sivarathri is mentioned in Kamika Sasthra. Magha Krishna paksha night is called Shiva Rathri. Any good deed done during this day would give easy benefits.
If on Magha Krishna Paksha, if Chaturdasi is fully there, without doubt Shiva Rathri should be observed on that day. If partial thithi comes Thryodasi is not desirable but Chaturdasi is. If Chaturdasi is there after sun set, it is considered as propitious.

3. Ishana Samhitha
The shiva Rathri time is determined here. Chaturdasi should be there at night. The time between 15th and 16th Nazhigai is defined as night. Chaturdasi should be there at that time. If during that time for two consecutive days Chaturdasi is there, then that day when it extends up to Pradosha is taken as Shiva Rathri.. It is impossible for this to happen on both days.

4. Nagarakhanda
On Shiva Rathri day, fast and spending awake the day and night as well as special poojas on Linga during the four Yamas should be done. People who observe Shiva Rathri this way would lead a life without any wants and reach the heaven of Lord Shiva. So Shiva Rathri is also classified as Nithya Kamyam.

XXV. Panchadasi Nirnaya
(Determination of Panchadasi)

In case of both Amavasya (new moon) and Pournavasya (full moon) Para Vidha is desirable. But savithri Vrutha should be observed in Chaturdasi Poornima or Amavasya days. If any ritual has to be observed depending on star, in the star which is spread during sun rise, we can take bath and give alms. Fast should be observed during those stars which are spread till night.

Thus ends the chapter on Thithi determination in Samkshepa Dharma Sasthra.

F. Prayaschitha Prakaranam
[Chapter on Redemptive Rituals]

I. Prayaschitha Shabhadaratha (Meaning of the word Prayaschitha - Redemption)
II. Prayaschitha akarane dosha (Result of not doing redemptive acts)
III. Nava Vidhani Paapani (Nine types of sins)
IV. Mahapathakas (Greatest sins)
V. Athipathaka (Great sins)
VI. Samapathaka (ordinary sins)
VII. Upapathaka (Subsidiary sins)
VIII. Sankarikaranani (Getting polluted)
IX. Malinikarana (Making dirty)
X. Apathrikarana (Dealing with undesirable)
XI. Jathibramsakarana (Destroying community)
XII. Jnana Ajnana krutha Papa Vichara (Sins done knowingly and unknowingly)
XIII. Pathakam Dwividam (Two types of crime)
XIV. Prajapathya Kruchra Lakshanam (Procedure of Mortification)
XV. Pada Kruchra (Procedure of Pada - quarter - Kruchra)
XVI. Ardha Kruchra (Procedure of Ardha - half - Kruchra)
XVII. Athi Kruchra (Procedure of Athi - more - Kruchra)
XVIII. Kruchradhi Kruchram (Kruchram of Kruchrams)
XIX. Chaandrayanam (Mortification for 30 days)
XX. Keshaam chith paapanam Prayaschitha (Redemptive acts for certain sins)
XXI. Rahasya papa pariharam (Redemptive acts for sins done secretly)
XXII. Kruchraprathinidhaya (Alternative to Kruchra)

(This chapter lists out the different types of sins which can be done by a Brahmin. It then tells us in detail about several rituals involving mortification to get rid of the effects of sins.)

I. Prayaschitha Shabhadaratha
(Meaning of the word Prayaschitha - Redemption)

1. Angeeras
Praya means Thapas (deep meditation) and Chitha means definitely. That is for the sin or fault committed by us, if we do redemptive acts like Kruchra, Sharanagathi (surrender) as per shastras, it is believed that the sin would be removed. These acts of redemption are called Prayaschitha.

2. Vignaneswareeya
The word Prayaschitha indicates those actions which remove sins. So the sages have told it as a rudi (traditional) word. The common word for that is Prayaschitha and so Vignaneswara says it is Yoga rudi Prayaschitha.

3. Manu
Sin occurs by not performing actions recommended by shastras, by performing actions banned by Shastras, and by having no rule or control over actions of sound, touch, form, taste and smell. Thus sin occurs as three types. The man who does sin should definitely do redemptive acts.

II. Prayaschitha Akarane Dosha
(Result of not doing redemptive acts)

1. Yagnavalkya
If the people who do sin do not do Prayaschitha and do not even feel the guilt of having performed the sin, they would suffer very hard and cruel punishments in hell. There are 26 types of hell. They are Thamisra, Lohasanku, Mahaniraya, Salmali, Rourava, Kumbhala, Poothimruthika, Kalasuthrathapana, Mahanaraka, Kaakola, Samjeevana, Mahapada, Aaveesi, Andathamishra, Kumbheepaka, Asipathravana, and Thapana. These are the hells which would be attained by people who do Mahapathaka (greatly sinful acts) and Upapathaka (subsidiary sinful acts) and who do not perform redemption.

2. Yagnavalkya
The people who do the five Mahapathakas would suffer in cruel hells for a long time and take several births in this world. The man who does Brahmahathi (literally killing of a Brahmin) sin is born as Deer, dog, pig and Camel. The Brahmin, who takes up to Alcoholic drink, will be born as donkey, pulkasa (demon) and Vena (bard). The Brahmin, who steals gold, will take birth as worms, insects and flying insects. The one, who rapes his teacher’s wife, would be born as grass, plants and climbers. The one who does Brahmahathi (killing of Brahmin literally) would be born as one with T. B., the one who drinks alcoholic drinks would be born with black teeth and the one who steals gold will have brittle nails. The one who joins with these types of people is also a great sinner. The hells merited by the type of his friends and rebirths would be awarded to him also. If we do holy or sinful acts, first you would undergo blessings and punishments in the present birth and would go to heaven or hell. If we do it intensively you would see the results in three years three months and three days. So intensity in doing sins is not good. Sins should not be done at all.

3. Manu
The type of rebirths taken by people who commit different types of sins is also told by Manu. He who befriends a sinner or steals the wife of another or steals the property of a Brahmin would be born as Brahma rakshas (a type of ghost). He who tells gossips about others would be born as one having a stinking nose. He who points out the ills of others would have a stinking mouth. He who steals grain would be born as handicapped. The Misraka (adulterator) who buys good grains and adulterates it with bad grain would have extra organs. The one who steals food would be diseased, he who muzzles the opinion of others be born as a dumb one, the one who steals cloth would be born as one with Leucoderma and the one who steals a horse would be born lame. The people who do such sins would not be liked by good people, would be zombies, would be dumb, would be blind, would be deaf and would have ugly looking organs. People who due to avarice steal gems, corals and pearls would be born in criminal tribes. The one who steals grains would be born as a mouse, the one who steals bell metal would be born as a swan, the one who steals water would be born as a water crow, the one who steals honey would be born as big fly, the one who steals milk would be born as crow, the one who steals juicy things would be born as a dog and the one who steals ghee would be born as a mongoose. The one who steals white silk would be born as a small bird, the one who steals costly white silk would be born as frog, the one who steals things made of cotton thread would be born as a Krowncha bird, the one who steals a cow be born as mountain rat, and the one who steals Jaggery would be born as a bat. The one who steals things made with good ivory would be born as a mouse, the one who steals leafy vegetables be born as a peacock, the one who steals cooked rice would be born as an animal called Swavith and the one who steals uncooked rice born as a porcupine.
The one who steals fire would be born as a stork, the one who steals house hold articles as a worm called Grahakari and the one who steals red apparels as a thief.
The one who steals deer or elephant would be born as wolf, the one who steals horse would be born as tiger, the one who steals fruits and flowers as monkey, the one who steals women as a bear, the one who steals drinking water as Chathka (bird who cannot drink water) bird, the one who steals vehicles as camel and the one who steals cows as white sheep. Whatever may be the case, the one who steals the belongings of others would be born as a beast or a bird, Eating material meant for Homa without doing Homa is a sin which gives the same result. Hence undesirable acts should not be done. There may be minor differences to the punishment which would be awarded, among different sages but one of them is definite.

III. Nava Vidhani Paapani
(Nine types of sins)

1. Vishnu
Anger, passion and avarice are the three enemies of men. The one who is subject to these does the nine types of sins viz Mahapathaka, Athipathaka, Samapathaka, Upapathaka, Samggeranakarana, malinikarana, apathreekarana, Jathibramsa karana and Prakeernaka.

IV. Mahapathakas
(Greatest sins)

1. Manu
Killing of Brahmins, drinking, stealing of the gold of Brahmins, raping teacher’s wife and being friends with these four types of people are Mahapathakas. The people who do these are called great sinners.

V. Athipathaka
(Great sins)

1. Yama
The man who rapes his Mother's sister, friend of mother, daughter, father's sister, uncle's wife, sister and mother in law is the one who does Athipathakas.

2. Yagnavalkya
Having sex with a debased one, aborting a foetus and killing husband are Athipathakas for women.

VI. Samapathaka
(Ordinary Sins)

1. Yagnavalkya
Insulting elders, insulting Veda, troubling friends and forgetting the already learned Vedas are sins equivalent to Brahmahathi. Drinking Coconut water in a bell metal vessel, drinking milk mixed with salt, taking bath in water used by a washer man and drinking milk or curd in a copper vessel are considered equivalent to drinking Alcohol.

2. Manu
Stealing the article given to us for safe custody and stealing land, diamond and jewels are equivalent to stealing gold.

3. Manu
He who does evil things without intention or motive with his daughter, Dalith lady and the wives of friends as well as son which commits sin equivalent to raping the teacher's wife. These are classified as Samapathakas,. But if he does it willfully it is Athipathaka.

VII. Upapathaka
(Subsidiary Sins)

Conducting Yaga on behalf of a man who does not oknow Veda, Deserting teacher, father and mother, forsaking fire and Veda, giving up sons, The elder brother remaining bachelor when the younger one is married (the elder commits Parivithi sin and the younger parivedana), giving away girls to such brothers, Performing marriages of such brothers, raping of a virgin, living out of interest earned from money, Serving a Brahmachari, Selling tank, flower garden, wife and son, not performing rituals like sacred thread ceremony at the proper time, not obeying paternal and maternal uncles, Teaching Vedas and Vedanta for money compensation, Reciting Vedas and Vedanta for money, Selling goods like Gingelly, being in charge of the treasury of the king, running machines, pinching medicinal plants, Earning a living by use of women, Performing worship for spoiling others, Attracting people by magical chants, Moola Karma (?) Cutting living trees for sake of fire wood, Cooking for our own eating, Eating food in homes of people who abuse Shastras, Being a government servant, Not doing Agnihothra (mandatory fire worship), Stealing metals other than gold, Not returning loan, Reading the science developed by Mlechhas (foreigners?), Engaging in music and dance, stealing grains, copper and similar metals and cows, Drinking habit, sex with wives of others, and troubling Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and others are called Upapathakas.

VIII. Sankarikaranani
(Getting Polluted)

Killing of donkey, dog, Camel, Deer, Elephant, Goat, Sheep, fish snake and Buffalo are Sankarikarana sins.

IX. Malinikarana
(Making dirty)

Troubling worms, insects and birds, eating food mixed with alcohol and stealing flowers, firewood and fruits are classified as Malinikarana sins.

X. Apathrikarana
(Dealing with Undesirable)

Taking money from those who do not follow rituals, selling things, serving others and telling lies for everything are Apathrikarana sins

XI. Jathibramsakarana
(Destroying community)

Wounding, troubling Brahmins and making them sad, smelling things like onion, garlic etc and denying sex to the husband are Jathibramsakarana sins.

XII. Jnana Ajnana Krutha Papa Vichara
(Sins done knowingly and unknowingly)

1. Chagaleya
Redemption is only for those sins which are committed unknowingly. For sins committed knowingly, there is no redemption.

2. Manu
Some people are of the opinion that redemption is there only for sins committed unknowingly. Others however believe that redemption is there for sins committed knowingly also.

3. Smruthi
The redemption for sins committed knowingly are double that for sins committed unknowingly.

4. Athramadhaveeta
There is two results of Prayaschitha (redemption). One is that he will not suffer in hell after death. He also can have good interaction with every one in this world when he is alive. But if he has committed the five great sins, even if he carries out redemption, no interaction should be there with him. No body should have any dealings with him. So except for these, in case of Upapathakas, if redemption is done, he will not suffer hell after death and even in this world he can interact with others. For people who do Upapathakas intentionally, they should do double the amount of redemption. If this is done even for them there is no suffering in hell and people will move with them. There is no redemption for the one who does Mahapathakas intentionally. The only redemption is to fall from a mountain or falling in fire. That is redemptive acts are only for those Mahapathakas not done intentionally. Because redemptive acts after death are banned in the Kali age, for the acts of passion done intentionally resulting in a Mahapathakas, the suffering for hell is bound to be there. But if he does the 12 year Sadhya Prayachitha, other people can move with him. If Upapathakas are done unintentionally, just by reading Vedas, the redemption can be carried out. But if done intentionally redemptive rituals should be carried out.

5. Smrithi
It tells about redemption to those who aid a murder. The murderer, the man who approves it, the one who encouraged doing it, the man who helped in planning, The man who encourages a murder, The one who helps in its execution, The man who showed the path, the man who provided the place, the man who gave the weapon, The one who fed the murderer before committing it, the one who did not prevent it even though he could have prevented it, The man who appreciated it are all guilty. There are redemptive rituals for all of them.

XIII. Pathakam Dwividam
(Two Types of Crime)

Sins are of two types. One is doing sin with every one's knowledge or publicly. This is called Prakasa papam. Another is the sin committed without any one knowing it. This is called Rahasya papam (Secret sin). In case of Prakasa papam we should approach scholars who are expert in Vedas, Scholars knowing Dharma Sasthra and Great people who observe all rituals and carry out the redemptive ritual as advised by them. That is a Prakasa Prayachitham (public redemption). In case of Rahasya papam, the redemptive act also can be kept as secret,

XIV. Prajapathya Kruchra Lakshanam
(Procedure of Prajapathya Kruchra - Mortification)

This consists of taking food for three days only in day time followed by three days of food only in night time, followed by three days of food once, if offered without begging which is followed by starving for three days. This takes a period of 12 days to observe.

XV. Pada Kruchra
(Procedure of Pada - quarter - Kruchra)

This consists of taking food for one day in day time only, followed by one day food at night time only, followed by one day one time food, if available without begging and one day of starvation. This takes a period of 4 days to complete.

XVI. Ardha Kruchra
(Procedure of Ardha - half - Kruchra)

This consists of taking food for one day in day time only, followed by one day food at night time only, followed by two days one time food, if available without begging and two days of starvation. This takes a period of 6 days to complete.

XVII. Athi Kruchra
(Procedure of Athi - more - Kruchra)

This consists of taking only one hand full of food once in three days in day time, followed by three days at night time followed by three days if available without begging. This is to be followed by three days of complete starvation. This takes a period of 12 days to complete. Some sages permit only one mouthful of food but Sage Parasara is kind enough to permit one handful of food.

XVIII. Kruchradhi Kruchram
(Kruchram of Kruchrams)

This consists of drinking only water once during meals time for three days in day time, followed by three days at night, and followed by three days without begging, which would be followed by three days of complete starvation. Sage Yagnavalkya says that, taking once only milk for 21 days is Kruchradhi Kruchram. This is easier. Thaptha Kruchram is taking once for three days hot water once, followed by three days of once hot milk followed by three days of hot ghee, which has to be followed by three days of complete starvation. Santhapana Kruchram is taking Cow's urine, Cow dung, milk, curd, Ghee and Kuchotha (?) in that order once for one day each, followed by one day of starvation.
Starving for 12 days is called Paraga Kruchram. Suppose we live for one month only on fruits, it is called Phala Kruchram. Suppose we take only gruel made of Barley for one month it is called Yavaka Kruchram. Reciting Agamarshana Suktha followed by Thrishavasa (?) snana and observing fast for three days is called Agamarshana Kruchram.

XIX. Chaandrayanam
(Mortification for 30 days)

This is of two types - Pippeelika Madhyam (Ant middle) and Yava Madhyam (Barley middle).
Pippeelika Madhyam is fat in the beginning and end and slender in the middle and Yava Madhyam is thin in the beginnings and end and stout in the middle.
Sage Vasishta
This is Pipeelika Madhya Chaandrayanam: Start on Prathama of Krishna Paksha. Take 14 handful of food on that day. On the second day take 13 handfuls and so on and observe fast on Amavasya. On Shukla Prathama take one hand full and next day two hand full and so on. On Pournami day take 15 handfuls.
This is Yava Madhya Chaandrayanam: Start on Shukla Paksha Prathama. Take one handful on the first day, two on the second day and so on for 15 days. On Krishna Paksha Prathama take 14 handfuls. Daily reduce one handful for 14 days and on Amavasya observe fast.
Before beginning of these rites, you have to shave and give Dhana and Dakshina to Brahmins.
Taking three handful of food for one month and living a life of austerity is called Rishi Chaandrayanam. Taking four handfuls during day followed by four handfuls at night for one month and leading a proper life is called Shisu (child) Chaandrayanam. Taking eight handfuls for one month is called Yathi Chaandrayanam.

XX. Keshaam Chith Paapanam Prayaschitha
(Redemptive acts for certain sins)

1. Parashara
Parasara says that in the Kali age the redemption for Brahma Hathi dosha is to take bath in Rameshwaram. He has instructions for doing it properly. We should do Sankalpa and without slippers and umbrella walk and reach Rameswaram from our home. While going you have to beg and eat. While begging you have to say, "I am a sinner, I have Brahma Hathi dosha, Please give me alms." We should never enter any house. We can take rest in river banks or cattle sheds. Frequently we have to describe the nature of sin committed by us to people. After reaching Rameshwaram, you have to take bath in Dhanushkoti and in all theerthas including Agni Theertham. After this we can to return to our village and give as Dhana hundreds of cows and feed hundreds of Brahmins.

2. Manu
The one, who does Brahma Hathi Dosha, should build a hut outside the village and stay there for 12 years. He has to eat by begging for food in the Kapala (skull) of a human being. Also all the twenty four hours we should meditate on Hari.

3. Parasara
The redemptive act for the one who kills a cow is like this. He should shave all the hair from his head, take bath thrice a day and observe Go (cow) Vrutha. He should live with the group of cattle at night. When Cows go for grazing during day time, he should follow them. He should not bother about sun, rain etc. He should pay attention in protecting the cow. If they are caught in mud, he should himself lift and help them. Then he has to observe Prajapathya Kruchram. That Kruchram should be divided in to four depending on the age of the cow killed. Then he should do Godhana and feed Brahmins. This is the Prayaschitha for killing cows. Then he tells about redemptive act for killing a cow or for beating it with a stick, big stone and knife and other weapons. For the one who beats with a stick and kills, Santhapana Kruchram is prescribed. For the one who hits it with a ball of mud and kills it, Prajapathya Kruchram is prescribed. For the one who kills it with a stone Thaptha Kruchram and the one who kills with knife Athi Kruchram is prescribed. If a man kills a cow and hides it,, he would go to the hell called Kala Suthra and suffer there for a long time. Then he would be born for seven lives as one who has great disease, eunuch and one who only suffers. In the term cow, bull also is included.

4. Manu
If a man drinks alcoholic drink, for redemption he has to boil the drink and drink it as such when it is boiling. If his body is burnt as a result, he would get rids of the sin committed by drinking.

5. Yama
If you happen to drink milk or coconut water in a copper vessel or drink milk mixed with salt or drink alcoholic drink knowingly you have to observe Chaandrayanam. If you do it unknowingly, Prajapathya Kruchra is sufficient.

6. Yagnavalkya
If a Brahmin steals Gold, he should give a big mortar (Ulakkai) to the king and request the king to beat him with the mortar. If not he should do the redemptive act prescribed for drinking alcohol. Other alternative is to give to another Brahmin Gold equivalent to his own weight.

7. Markandeya
Going to a prostitute destroys both respectability as well as wealth. This would also destroy fame and Thapas. Having sex with a widow would reduce your power as well as life. Having sex with some body else's wife would destroy everything. The prayachitham for this is very harsh.

8. Devala
The man who spreads gossip about others, a rowdy, Drunkard and a Gambler are considered as very bad people. If we happen to live with any of them for one day, we have to perform Paraga Kruchra. If we live with any of them for 15 days, we have to perform Thaptha Kruchra. If we live with any of them for a month, we have to perform Prajapathya Kruchra. If we live for one year we have to perform Chaandrayanam. Then only we would become clean. If we live more than one year, we are also classified as very bad.

9. Jabali
The one who takes bath in the well for 7 days, the one who takes bath in hot water for 7 days and the one who does not clean himself with mud after answering nature's calls should do Prajapathya Kruchram and then drink Pancha Gavya to get himself cleaned.

10. Yagnavalkya
For getting rid of Upapathakas we have do Chaandrayanam or live with only milk as food for one month or perform Paraga Kruchra.

XXI. Rahasya Papa Pariharam
(Redemptive acts for sins done secretly)

1. Manu
Doing Veda Parayana daily, doing the five great Yagna (Pancha Maha Yagna) and being patient, destroy the sins committed in secret. Like a fire makes twigs in to ash, the Veda knowing Brahmin drives away all the sins by the fire of his knowledge. It is also told that if we do 16 Pranayamas along with Mantras, the sins committed vanish.

2. Parasara
Chaandrayanam, Yavaka Kruchra, Thula Purusha Dhana, Go Vrutha and taking care of cows are normal redemptive acts for all sins.

3. Paitinasi
Even though we are involved in several sins, if we meditate on Achyutha and Vasudeva forgetting the world, we again become pure and become noble.

4. Brugu
Even if sins are done in one crore different ways, if we sing "Rama, Rama", by the effect of the name "Rama" all sins would be destroyed. This is a redemptive act for all sorts of sins. There is no better redemptive act in any of the Shastras.

5. Brhamikavartha
The man, though he has committed all sorts of sins,, if he sings about Lord Shiva with a sinless mind and great devotion, he would become a pure soul.

6. Athri
If we chant the Sri Rudra Mantra, eleven times, even if we have committed great sins, we would get rid of all sins.

XXII. Kruchraprathinidhaya
(Alternative to Kruchra)

1. Hemadhri
Because due to the change of time and place, we may not be able to observe Prajapathya Kruchra, The great sages have told other alternatives.. This Kruchram according to them is equivalent to feeding 12 Brahmins or Ten thousand times chanting of Gayathri or doing 1000 thila homams.

2. Parasara
Prajapathya Kruchra is equivalent to 200 pranayamas
12 times bathing in sacred rivers like Ganga
Walking 20 miles singing the names of God
Chanting Gayathri Manthra 10000 times
It is sufficient if one of them is observed.

3. Madhaveeya
If we are not able to observe Prajapathya Kruchra, we have to give one cow to a Brahmin, If this is not possible, we can give sufficient money to buy a cow to a Brahmin. If without intention sins occur to sagely elders, they can do Japa and Homa and get rid of the sin. If Sin is done by one who does not follow Achara, he has to do Kruchrams to get rid of sins. In case of rich people they can get rid of their sins by large donations of wealth.

Thus ends the chapter on Redemptive acts in Samkshepa Dharma Sasthra.

Thus ends The Samkshepa Dharma Shastra.

Samkshepa Dharma Shasthre Sankeerna Vishaya
[Appendix to topics dealt in Samkshepa Dharma Shastra]

Sanath Kumara said
In this very horrible Kali age, the path of Vedas is neglected and the path of the Barbarians is being adopted. Since the mind of Brahmins and others is not pure, there would be no results for the rituals performed by them. So what is the path fot attaining happiness and safety in this Yuga.

Narada said:
The entire mobile and immobile world acts as per the orders of the great God. This Kali Yuga would only be like this and we have to save ourselves from it. In the previous Yugas we were able to obey Sasthra and their injunctions. In Kali we cannot carry out anything in the way that we desire. The only option is to perform rituals the best way we can and dedicate it to God with devotion to Lords Vishnu. The God will accept them and bless us.

If the man observing fast is not able to observe complete fast he can choose one out of Water, root vegetables, fruits, milk, Rice without salt, what has been offered in Sradha, the teachings of Guru and medicine. These eight do not spoil the Vrutha of fasting.

By frequently drinking water, by frequently eating Thamboola (betel leaf plus betel nut), by sleeping in the day time and having sex with ladies, the fasting ritual would be destroyed. So we should not do them while fasting.

Those great ones who do Japa (chant) do not have bad dreams, worry, ghosts, snakes, Brahma Rakshas, thieves, head ache etc So it is essential to chant good Mantras.

The one who lights the perennial lamp and maintains it in the temple of Vishnu or Lord Shiva, and maintains them everyday gets the effect of having performed an Aswamedha Yaga.

After meals, if we worship Lord Vishnu and eat the Nirmalya Thulasi (ocimum sanctum) leaf, then we would get rid of all sins and get the effect of having performed 100 Chaandrayanam,

During sacred thread ceremony, we can eat together with our mother and on the day of the marriage we can eat with our wives. But in all other times if we eat along with a lady, we would become sinners.

During Homa, Meals, Sandhya vandana, Japa and worship, we have to do Aachamana twice.

Sins do not stick on the body of a Brahmin in whose body Vedas are there. He would be personification of Vedas but by a bare body there is no use.

First we have to learn Veda face to face from some one. Then we have think and do research on the meaning of what we have learnt. Then we have to repeat again and again whatever we have learnt. We should do Brahma Yagna. We should teach what we have learnt to others. These are the five aspects of learning Vedas.

When we learn Vedas we have to lead a ritualistic life, follow the writs of the part of Veda we are learning, eat food on the floor and learn the entire Veda including Upanishads. This is the important duty of a Brahmin.

When we are learning Vedas, we should do it fast, when we are practicing we should do it with medium speed and when we are teaching it, we should recite it slowly.

When we are beginning to learn Prasna and Anuvaka, we have say Hari slowly similar to Harihi. It should be separately pronounced and not mixed with "Om” that follows it. "Ha" should be told loudly and "Ri" softly.

That Brahmin who teaches Vedas according to the tenets of Dharma, he gets similar benefit as that of Bhoo dhana (giving away land) and Godhana (giving away cows)

If a Gothra or Pravara rishi is found in some other Gothra, Such Gothras are considered as similar Pravara. But this is not applicable to Brugu Gothra and Aangeeras Gothra.

If a girl is not given in marriage (even after she grows up), she can live in the house of her birth till death. So Just for the sake of marrying her away, we should not give her in marriage to a debased male.

In case of Sradha of mother and father, the Thila Tharpana should be done in the next day morning. But in Sradha of others, Tharpana has to be performed immediately.

On the first day of a Yuga, on the first day of the month, Pournavasya and on Vyatheepada, The Tharpana should be done before the Sradha where Anna is offered. In case of Ardhodhaya, Gajachaya, Sashti, Mahalaya Bharani and Mahalaya Maka, the Tharpana should be done afterwards.

In case of Nandi Sradham, Sapindeekaranam, Pretha Sradham, Anumasikam, Apthika and Vimokam, there is no Tharpana.

In Mahalaya Sradha and in all Sradhas which are performed in the Hiranya form, the Tharpana should be performed after the Sradha. The consideration of before and after is only in case of Anna Sradha.

Brahmachari should not carry a corpse. If he touches, sacred thread ceremony should be performed again for him.

If several Sradhas come on the same day, first do Pratyapthika, (annual) then Masika (monthly) and then Darsa (on Amavasya).

Any sin which can be removed by starving for 15 days can be removed by doing 100 pranayamas. That sin which can be removed by doing 1000 Pranayama, can be removed in a second by meditating the four armed form of Vishnu with conch, mace, flower and the wheel. So please meditate on Hari always.

Among Mantras Shiva Panchakshara mantra called the king of Mantras is most superior. Among the ways, the way pointed out by Vedas is most superior. Among the things to be attained Salvation is the most superior.

There is no one like Samba or Eesaana who cut of the ties of worldly life, who is superior to me. I am divine, I am free, I am everywhere. My being everywhere is not due to the effect of illusion. I am witness for everything. (This indicates that worship of Lord Shiva gives us all that we desire and want.)

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